Environmental Impacts
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thaís Vieira Nunhes ◽  
Thalita Láua Reis Campos ◽  
Fernanda Ellen Francisco ◽  
Otávio José de Oliveira

With the advance of globalization and population increase, it was necessary to intensify the production of goods to meet the new demands that arose. As a result, a significant emergence of negative socio-environmental impacts was observed, affecting the entire planet. The UN launched the 2030 Agenda to encourage all sectors of the economy, including the industrial sector, in promoting Sustainable Development (SD). Companies have sought to adopt techniques, tools and practices that enable SD in organizations. Among the range of possibilities to operationalize sustainable management, there are the Certifiable Management Systems (CMSs) ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and ISO 45001. In order to facilitate the integration between these systems, ISO launched in 2018 the Annex SL with the High-Level Structure (HLS), providing greater compatibility between them. However, most companies do not know enough about this change and its benefits for sustainability. Thus, this work presents the main contributions of Annex SL to the development of sustainability in companies that have implemented CMSs. By reviewing the literature on the relationship between CMSs and sustainability, and the expertise of the authors, it was possible to identify and discuss on the contributions of the main elements of the HLS to sustainability, which are organizational context analysis, risk management, evidence-based decision making, emphasis on measuring and evaluating processes and results, and a culture of integration and continuous improvement.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Piradee Jusakulvijit ◽  
Alberto Bezama ◽  
Daniela Thrän

Abstract Background The availability of underexploited agricultural residues in Thailand opens up the opportunity to supply second-generation bioethanol production. The national implementation of residues-to-biofuel can potentially boost the bioeconomy and greenhouse gas mitigation but requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders in the development of effective policy recommendations. This study aims to optimize the implementation of the national strategy through the use of a multi-criteria approach that involves participatory prioritization by current stakeholders in order to evaluate certain aspects and important indicators for second-generation bioethanol development. Methods The Delphi-AHP technique was used to analyze the degree of importance of different criteria. The evaluation process was conducted with various stakeholders and used a pairwise comparison of 4 dimensions (main criteria) and 12 indicators (sub-criteria). Participants were asked to rate factors related to technical feasibility, environmental impacts, economic feasibility and social impacts in terms of importance. Results Bioethanol stakeholders in Thailand from five different sectors (industry/business, NPO/NGOs, the governmental sector, academic/research institutes and financial institutions/banks) participated in the Delphi survey. The 20 experts’ evaluation of the four dimensions ranked economic feasibility (32.7%) highest in terms of level of importance, followed by environmental impacts (25.1%), technical feasibility (24.9%) and social impacts (17.3%). When assessing the sub-criteria, the participants selected ‘final price per liter’, ‘added value of input materials’ and ‘net energy balance’ as the top three most important indicators among the 12 sub-criteria. In terms of a link between the preferred criteria and the participants’ expertise, the results encouraged taking different backgrounds and affiliations into account in the policy planning phase. Conclusions The stakeholder survey indicated the importance of economic aspects, highlighting the need to take governmental driven policy into consideration. However, implementation scenarios have to be embedded in a broader range of aspects because all the dimensions were rated as being highly impactful. For future sustainable bioenergy, the inclusion of stakeholders’ opinions can result in multifaceted scenarios that can be linked to social acceptance and benefits for all relevant players when developing policy recommendations for advanced bioenergy.


Conservation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 299-310
Author(s):  
Jesús Eduardo Sáenz-Ceja ◽  
Diego Rafael Pérez-Salicrup

Avocado cultivation has reduced the extent of forest ecosystems in central Mexico, even in natural protected areas such as the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) where information on the extent and expansion dynamics of avocado cover is scant. This study aimed to identify avocado plantations within the MBBR through photo interpretation for the 2006–2018 period. Change rates of the avocado cover extent were calculated for the northern, central, and southern zones of the MBBR, and topographic attributes such as elevation, soil type, slope, and slope aspect were identified. A total extent of 958 ha is covered by avocado plantations within the MBBR. The southern zone hosted the largest area under avocado cultivation (570 ha), but the northern zone had the highest change rate between 2006 and 2018 (422%). Most avocado orchards have been established mainly in Acrisol soils, south-facing slopes, on steep hillsides, and in elevations between 2050 and 2800 m. The conversion from traditional agricultural lands has been the main mechanism for the establishment of avocado orchards. However, 40 ha under avocado cultivation derived from deforestation, mainly in the central zone. The expansion of avocado plantations could trigger environmental impacts, even threatening the overwintering habitat and the migratory phenomenon of the monarch butterflies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 105978
Author(s):  
Xin Liu ◽  
Xinyu Lu ◽  
Yahui Feng ◽  
Ling Zhang ◽  
Zengwei Yuan

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11682
Author(s):  
Martin Nwodo ◽  
Chimay Anumba

The relevance of exergy to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of buildings has been studied regarding its potential to solve certain challenges in LCA, such as the characterization and valuation, accuracy of resource use, and interpretation and comparison of results. However, this potential has not been properly investigated using case studies. This study develops an exergy-based LCA method and applies it to three case-study buildings to explore its benefits. The results provide evidence that the theoretical benefits of exergy-based LCA as against a conventional LCA can be achieved. These include characterization and valuation benefits, accuracy, and enabling the comparison of environmental impacts. With the results of the exergy-based LCA method in standard metrics, there is now a mechanism for the competitive benchmarking of building sustainability assessments. It is concluded that the exergy-based life cycle assessment method has the potential to solve the characterization and valuation problems in the conventional life-cycle assessment of buildings, with local and global significance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michał Słowiński ◽  
Achim Brauer ◽  
Piotr Guzowski ◽  
Tomasz Związek ◽  
Milena Obremska ◽  
...  

AbstractConnecting pathways are essential for cultural and economic exchange. Commonly, historians investigate the role of routes for cultural development, whereas the environmental impacts of historical routes attract less attention. Here, we present a high-resolution reconstruction of the impact of the major trade route via Marchionis in the southern Baltic lowlands on landscape evolution since more than 800 years. We combine precisely dated annually laminated sediments from Lake Czechowskie alongside via Marchionis and pollen data at 5-year resolution together with historical data. The transformation from a quasi-natural to a cultural landscape occurred in three phases (1) an early phase until the mid-fourteenth century with slowly increasing human impact. (2) an intensification of environmental disturbance until (3) the mid-nineteenth century when via Marchionis became a modern traffic route with strong environmental impacts. Superimposed on the long-term development were repeated interruptions by short-term downturns related to societal crisis and political decisions.


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