The Individual
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(FIVE YEARS 13935)



2021 ◽  
pp. 51-81
Oliver Knox

In the 1930s, Zen Buddhism was hardly known outside Japan. By the 1960s, it had become by far the most popular form of Buddhism in Europe and the United States. Its popularity was born from the general belief that Zen responded to the psychological and religious needs of the individual without incurring the criticisms customarily levelled against religion. Zen was imagined as a practical spirituality that accepted all religions and religious symbols as expressions of a universal psychological truth. Zen was not itself a religion, but a ‘super-religion’ that had understood the inner mechanics of the psyche’s natural religion-making function. Three authors in particular, namely D. T. Suzuki, Friedrich Spiegelberg and Alan Watts, were pivotal in the formation of this narrative. Using Jung’s psychological model as their conceptual basis, they promoted a vision of Zen Buddhism that laid the foundations for the ‘Zen Boom’ of the 1950s and 60s. This article will examine the pivotal role played by Jung’s psychology in the formation of this narrative. KEYWORDS Zen Buddhism, D. T. Suzuki, Alan Watts, Friedrich Spiegelberg, The Religion of no Religion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 26-38
Marie Segrave

This paper explores the implications of domestic and family violence occurring across borders, specifically the utilisation of border crossings to exert control and enact violence. While gendered violence can and does occur in border-crossing journeys, this paper focuses more specifically on how domestic and family violence extends across national borders and how violence (or the threat of violence and deportation) can manifest across multiple countries when women are temporary visa holders. This paper illuminates the way in which migration systems play a significant role in temporary migrant experiences of domestic and family violence. Drawing on a study of 300 temporary migrants and their experiences of domestic and family violence, I argue that perpetrators effectively weaponise the migration system to threaten, coerce and control women in different ways, most often with impunity. I also argue that we cannot focus on perpetrators and the individual alone—that we need to build on the border criminology scholarship that highlights the need to focus on systemic harm in the context of domestic and family violence and identify how the migration regime contributes to gendered violence.

Daria Shchukina ◽  
Lyubov Stepanova ◽  

The article states the investigation results and highlights the peculiarities of natural codes representation in the tales (skazy) by P.P. Bazhov through the analysis of concept "zoloto" ("gold") and the associated concepts in contrast with the data from lexicographic sources of modern Russian literary language. The tales (skazy) by the Ural writer were used as the research material. As a result of the analysis, the features of the etymological, basic, associative levels of the concept "zoloto" ("gold") were revealed in the individual author's discourse of P. Bazhov. It has been found out that etymological level of the studied concept is represented by the meaning "precious metal of yellow colour" both in the Russian literary language and in the individual author's discourse of the Ural writer. Some denotative meanings recorded in the Russian literary language are revealed not to actualize in Bazhov's discourse. The differences in the associative level of the concept reflected in the writer's tales and in the minds of the speakers of the Russian literary language are determined. The appearance of additional regionally marked meanings is caused by natural, cultural, professional activities of the inhabitants of the Urals tightly connected with the extraction and processing of precious stones and metals, as well as the regional mythology. The practical significance of the research lies in the development of a system of theoretical knowledge about the concept structure, and the identification of regionally marked meanings of the conceptual sphere of P. Bazhov's individual author's discourse.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 202-225
Roger T. Dean ◽  
David Bulger ◽  
Andrew J. Milne

Production of relatively few rhythms with non-isochronous beats has been studied. So we assess reproduction of most well-formed looped rhythms comprising K=2-11 cues (a uniform piano tone, indicating where participants should tap) and N=3-13 isochronous pulses (a uniform cymbal). Each rhythm had two different cue interonset intervals. We expected that many of the rhythms would be difficult to tap, because of ambiguous non-isochronous beats and syncopations, and that complexity and asymmetry would predict performance. 111 participants tapped 91 rhythms each heard over 129 pulses, starting as soon as they could. Whereas tap-cue concordance in prior studies was generally >> 90%, here only 52.2% of cues received a temporally congruent tap, and only 63% of taps coincided with a cue. Only −2 ms mean tap asynchrony was observed (whereas for non-musicians this value is usually c. −50 ms). Performances improved as rhythms progressed and were repeated, but precision varied substantially between participants and rhythms. Performances were autoregressive and mixed effects cross-sectional time series analyses retaining the integrity of all the individual time series revealed that performance worsened as complexity features K, N, and cue inter-onset interval entropy increased. Performance worsened with increasing R, the Long: short (L: s) cue interval ratio of each rhythm (indexing both complexity and asymmetry). Rhythm evenness and balance, and whether N was divisible by 2 or 3, were not useful predictors. Tap velocities positively predicted cue fulfilment. Our data indicate that study of a greater diversity of rhythms can broaden our impression of rhythm cognition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (2) ◽  
pp. 7-14
Julia Sergeevna Shevnina ◽  
Vadim Valerievich Konstantinov

The article discusses designing and developing an automated information system for assessing the professional qualities and competencies of the enterprise employees. There has been noted the system’s ability to test the employees, taking into account the specifics of the enterprise and the individual achievements of employees. There has been analyzed an integrated method that allows composing individual test tasks consisting of tests and routine problems, whose sequence is determined by the answers of the employees tested. The automated information system is implemented as a one-page SPA application. Vue.js and Express.js frameworks are used. In the process of designing an automated information system the main functional requirements were determined, the structure of the database was developed. The system implements the principles of access control based on the differentiation of user rights. The roles of users and administrator are defined. The architecture of the developed automated information system based on the client-server approach has been designed. The function of creating tests in the developed system allows creating tests with different types of questions and forming different individual trajectories of testing the knowledge of the company’s employees, taking into account its specifics

2021 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 201-219
Piers Dixon ◽  
John Gilbert

Until recently, deer hunting in medieval Scotland has been poorly researched archaeologically. In Hunting and Hunting Reserves in Medieval Scotland Gilbert identified medieval parks at Stirling and Kincardine in Perthshire that William the Lion created, but it is only in recent years that excavations by Hall and Malloy have begun to explore their archaeology. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland recorded another type of hunting feature, a deer trap at Hermitage Castle, in 1996 and then re-recorded the earthwork at Dormount Hope in 2000, originally reported as two separate monuments. Although the earthworks of parks and traps display similarities in the construction of their earthwork boundaries, the individual sites have variations in their topography that beg questions about their function. This paper establishes that the earthwork is indeed a single monument which has an open end allowing deer to be driven into the natural canyon of Dormount Hope. It goes on to discuss its dating in both archaeological and documentary terms and then its function as either a park, trap or hay (haga OE). This last possibility is raised by its apparent mention in a Melrose Abbey charter of the neighbouring estate of Raeshaw dating to the last quarter of the 12th century, made by the lords of Hownam, a family of Anglian origin. This Anglian connection leads to its interpretation as a hay – a kind of deer hunting enclosure or trap known in many parts of England prior to the Norman Conquest, for which ‘hay’ place names, such as Hawick, in the Scottish Borders provide support.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (01) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Kitty R. Van Teijlingen ◽  
Bhimsen Devkota ◽  
Flora Douglas ◽  
Padam Simkhada ◽  
Edwin R. Van Teijlingen

Across the globe, there can be confusion about the difference between the concepts of health education, health promotion and, often also, public health. This confusion does not limit itself to the individual terms but also to how these terms relate to each other. Some use terms such as health education and health promotion interchangeably; others see them clearly as different concepts. In this theoretical overview paper, we have first of all outlined our understanding of these individual terms. We suggest how the five principles of health promotion as outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1984) fit into Tannahill’s (2009) model of three overlapping areas: (a) health education; (b) prevention of ill health; and (c) health protection. Our schematic overview places health education within health promotion and health promotion itself in the center of the overarching disciplines of education and public health. We hope our representation helps reduce confusion among all those interested in our discipline, including students, educators, journalists, practitioners, policymakers, politicians, and researchers.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 2976
Pavel Hazdra ◽  
Jan Kracek ◽  
Tomas Lonsky ◽  
Vaclav Kabourek ◽  
Zdenek Hradecky

A compact three-element shared-aperture waveguide antenna array for the 24–28 GHz microwave-frequency band is presented as a proof-of-concept of an array with steerable directional beam suitable for 5G telecommunication systems. The array is intended for use in a microwave photonic link and is sufficiently steerable only with the progressively phased excitation signals of equal magnitudes. The mutual interactions between the array elements are minimized to maintain the properties of the individual elements, even if they are embedded and closely spaced in the array. The proposed concept could be simply extended by adding more elements to further increase the directivity and enhance the steering properties of the array.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 103-113
Yuhandri Pane ◽  
M. Manugeren ◽  
Purwarno Purwarno

The research is focused on the styles of Javanese political leadership revealed in the novel Arok Dedes written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer. The Javanese leadership style is a cultural heritage and deserves to be maintained and revitalized and to be adjusted to the changing of times. Javanese people live side by side in harmony with cultural norms and values  and lifestyle becomes an ethnic identity.  The objectives are to find styles and how the styles of Javanese political leadership are revealed in Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s novel Arok Dedes. A theory of Javanese leadership style, with its slogan of 5Ms is used a base and the whole research is conducted by means of descriptive qualitative method revealing the individual personality. The results show that the 5Ms of style are found in the novel: 1) melek/awas (awareness), 2) melik (sense of ownership), 3) muluk (poverty solution, 4) melok (aspiration realization), and 5) meluk (accomodation), all of which are performed by a leader of Tumapel district, named Ken Arok. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 243-281
Barbara Greene

The anime adaptation of the light novel franchise Bakemonogatari was released in 2009. The story revolves around the character Araragi Koyomi, a high school student in his senior year who encounters a powerful vampire during a school break and is transformed into a semi-supernatural being himself. However, this is not merely an example of a supernaturally-focused anime, but rather is a discussion on the impact of capitalism on the subjectivity of the individual. The narrative and experience of viewing Bakemonogatari is a commentary on the trauma of postmodernity and otaku consumption’s failure to remediate the objectification of consumer-capitalism. The series’ design and narrative choices is designed to attract otaku, to whose consumption these patterns are designed to appeal, and thereby give warning to otaku concerning the potential dangers posed by their approach towards media. The characters in this series are possessed by Specters who dredge up and yet simultaneously suppress this traumatic state of existence in a world without catharsis and without justice. Otaku, attracted to moe-kyara to escape the drudgery and misery of the three-dimensional world, are shown that this escape itself is a form of harm—like Araragi, they turn meaning into a form of self-flagellation and heap untold suffering on the moe-kyara towards which they are inextricably drawn.

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