large eddy simulations
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2022 ◽  
Chi Ding ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  
Chunlei Liang ◽  
Kenneth Visser ◽  
Guangming Yao

Abstract Large-eddy simulations are conducted to investigate and physically interpret the impacts of heterogeneous, low terrain on deep-convection initiation (CI). The simulations are based on a case of shallow-to-deep convective transition over the Amazon River basin, and use idealized terrains with varying levels of ruggedness. The terrain is designed by specifying its power-spectral shape in wavenumber space, inverting to physical space assuming random phases for all wave modes, and scaling the terrain to have a peak height of 200 m. For the case in question, these modest terrain fields expedite CI by up to 2-3 h, largely due to the impacts of the terrain on the size of, and subcloud support for, incipient cumuli. Terrain-induced circulations enhance subcloud kinetic energy on the mesoscale, which is realized as wider and longer-lived subcloud circulations. When the updraft branches of these circulations breach the level of free convection, they initiate wider and more persistent cumuli that subsequently undergo less entrainment-induced cloud dilution and detrainment-induced mass loss. As a result, the clouds become more vigorous and penetrate deeper into the troposphere. Larger-scale terrains are more effective than smaller-scale terrains in promoting CI because they induce larger enhancements in both the width and the persistence of subcloud updrafts.

2022 ◽  
Giuseppe Indelicato ◽  
Pasquale E. Lapenna ◽  
Nelson P. Longmire ◽  
Arianna Remiddi ◽  
Daniel T. Banuti ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tyler R. Landua ◽  
Rohit Kameshwara Sampath Sai Vuppala ◽  
Kursat Kara

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