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Fluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Author(s):  
Ming Teng ◽  
Ugo Piomelli

The development of secondary instabilities in a boundary layer over a backward-facing step is investigated numerically. Two step heights are considered, h/δo*=0.5 and 1.0 (where δo* is the displacement thickness at the step location), in addition to a reference flat-plate case. A case with a realistic freestream-velocity distribution is also examined. A controlled K-type transition is initiated using a narrow ribbon upstream of the step, which generates small and monochromatic perturbations by periodic blowing and suction. A well-resolved direct numerical simulation is performed. The step height and the imposed freestream-velocity distribution exert a significant influence on the transition process. The results for the h/δo*=1.0 case exhibit a rapid transition primarily due to the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability downstream of step; non-linear interactions already occur within the recirculation region, and the initial symmetry and periodicity of the flow are lost by the middle stage of transition. In contrast, case h/δo*=0.5 presents a transition road map in which transition occurs far downstream of the step, and the flow remains spatially symmetric and temporally periodic until the late stage of transition. A realistic freestream-velocity distribution (which induces an adverse pressure gradient) advances the onset of transition to turbulence, but does not fundamentally modify the flow features observed in the zero-pressure gradient case. Considering the budgets of the perturbation kinetic energy, both the step and the induced pressure-gradient increase, rather than modify, the energy transfer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
Bing Yang ◽  
Po Hu ◽  
Yijun Hou

The semidiurnal internal tides (ITs) on the continental slope of the southeastern East China Sea (ECS) exhibited abrupt enhancement in November of 2017. This enhancement resulted from the intensification of the coherent semidiurnal ITs. Coherent and incoherent semidiurnal ITs had a comparative energy contribution in October; however, coherent semidiurnal ITs dominated with a variance contribution of 90% in November. The variance contribution of vertical modes of the semidiurnal ITs varied between October and November, and the mode with most variance contribution changed from the second mode to the first mode. Altimeter data and the observed background currents indicated that the Kuroshio mainstream meandered and abruptly intruded into the ECS in November. The upper layer background currents were significantly related to the kinetic energy of the semidiurnal ITs, and the correlation coefficient between them reached 0.81. The frequent occurrences of the Kuroshio intrusion have suggested that the ITs in the ECS are susceptible to the modulation of the Kuroshio current. Numerical modeling and predication of ITs should consider the meander of the Kuroshio mainstream.


Author(s):  
Patrick Geeraert ◽  
Fatemehsadat Jamalidinan ◽  
Fiona Burns ◽  
Kelly Jarvis ◽  
Michael S. Bristow ◽  
...  

Objectives: Clinical management decisions surrounding ascending aorta (AAo) dilation in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease benefit from personalized predictive tools. 4D-flow MRI may provide patient-specific markers reflective of BAV-associated aortopathy. This study aims to explore novel 4D-flow MRI parametric voxel-by-voxel forward flow, reverse flow, kinetic energy and stasis in BAV disease. We hypothesize that novel parametric voxel-by-voxel markers will be associated with aortic dilation and referral for surgery and can enhance our understanding of BAV hemodynamics beyond standard metrics.Methods: A total of 96 subjects (73 BAV patients, 23 healthy controls) underwent MRI scan. Healthy controls had no known cardiovascular disease. Patients were clinically referred for AAo dilation assessment. Indexed diameters were obtained by dividing the aortic diameter by the patient’s body surface area. Patients were followed for the occurrence of aortic surgery. 4D-flow analysis was performed by a single observer in five regions: left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), AAo, arch, proximal descending aorta (PDAo), and distal descending aorta (DDAo). In each region peak velocity, kinetic energy (KE), forward flow (FF), reverse flow (RF), and stasis were measured on a voxel-by-voxel basis. T-tests (or non-parametric equivalent) compared flow parameters between cohorts. Univariate and multivariate analyses explored associations between diameter and parametric voxel-by-voxel parameters.Results: Compared to controls, BAV patients showed reduced stasis (p < 0.01) and increased RF and FF (p < 0.01) throughout the aorta, and KE remained similar. In the AAo, indexed diameter correlated with age (R = 0.326, p = 0.01), FF (R = −0.648, p < 0.001), RF (R = −0.441, p < 0.001), and stasis (R = −0.288, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, FF showed a significant inverse association with AAo indexed diameter, independent of age. During a median 179 ± 180 days of follow-up, 23 patients (32%) required aortic surgery. Compared to patients not requiring surgery, they showed increased KE and peak velocity in the proximal aorta (p < 0.01), accompanied by increased RF and reduced stasis throughout the entire aorta (p < 0.01).Conclusion: Novel voxel-by-voxel reverse flow and stasis were altered in BAV patients and are associated with aortic dilation and surgical treatment.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malay Ganai ◽  
Sahadat Sarkar ◽  
Radhika Kanase ◽  
R. Phani Murali Krishna ◽  
P Mukhopadhyay

Abstract In the present study, an investigation is made to understand the physical mechanism behind the anomalous high rainfall during August 2020 over the Indian subcontinent using both observation and GFS T1534 weather forecast model. According to India Meteorological Department (IMD), the country receives 27% excess rainfall in the month of August 2020. The excess rainfall is mainly contributed by the 5 well marked low pressure systems which formed over Bay of Bengal and moved west-northwestwards across central India up to Western Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The analysis reveals that the observed anomalous rainfall is distributed over central India region extending from coastal Orissa to central part of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and western coast of Gujarat region. It is also found that the August-2020 heavy rainfall is mainly contributed by the synoptic (2-10 days) component of the total rainfall whereas the contribution of the large-scale intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) component (10-90 days) is quite less. Although the present operational Global Forecast System (GFS) T1534 (GFS T1534) is able to predict the anomalous high rainfall with day-1 lead time, it underestimates the magnitude of the synoptic variance. Further, the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamical parameters show anomalous behaviour in terms of strong low level (850 hPa) jet, vertical velocity and associated moisture convergence in the lower level. The GFS T1534 is able to forecast the above large-scale features reasonably well even with day-5 lead time. From energetics analysis, it is found that the mean kinetic energy (MKE) is stronger for August 2020 as compared to climatological value and the strong MKE efficiently transfers the energy to the synoptic scale, and hence the synoptic eddy kinetic energy is higher. Along with that, the ISO scale kinetic energy for August 2020 is less compared to the August climatological value. GFS T1534 model has some fidelity in capturing the energy conversion processes, but it has some difficulty in capturing the magnitude with increased lead time.


Author(s):  
Archit Chaturvedi

ATP Synthase is an essential molecule in cell and molecular biology. It is responsible for the production of ATP during cellular respiration, a molecule that provides the energy required to drive a number of cellular processes. In this paper, I explore the rotational physics of ATP Synthase’s rotor, a part of the protein that spins during the production of ATP. Firstly, I discuss some elementary rotational kinematics of the rotor. I then derive two alternate formulations for the total linear acceleration of the rotor. Finally, I derive formulas for the moment of inertia, angular momentum, net torque, and kinetic energy of the rotor. Through this, I hope to provide a theoretical and mathematical insight into the mechanics of ATP Synthase during the production of ATP.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Author(s):  
Gabriel Barrientos ◽  
Giacomo Clementi ◽  
Carlo Trigona ◽  
Merieme Ouhabaz ◽  
Ludovic Gauthier-Manuel ◽  
...  

In this paper, we present integrated lead-free energy converters based on a suitable MEMS fabrication process with an embedded layer of LiNbO3. The fabrication technology has been developed to realize micromachined self-generating transducers to convert kinetic energy into electrical energy. The process proposed presents several interesting features with the possibility of realizing smaller scale devices, integrated systems, miniaturized mechanical and electromechanical sensors, and transducers with an active layer used as the main conversion element. When the system is fabricated in the typical cantilever configuration, it can produce a peak-to-peak open-circuit output voltage of 0.208 V, due to flexural deformation, and a power density of 1.9 nW·mm−3·g−2 at resonance, with values of acceleration and frequency of 2.4 g and 4096 Hz, respectively. The electromechanical transduction capability is exploited for sensing and power generation/energy harvesting applications. Theoretical considerations, simulations, numerical analyses, and experiments are presented to show the proposed LiNbO3-based MEMS fabrication process suitability. This paper presents substantial contributions to the state-of-the-art, proposing an integral solution regarding the design, modelling, simulation, realization, and characterization of a novel transducer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhen Gao ◽  
Liguang Wu ◽  
Xingyang Zhou

It has been numerically demonstrated that the turbulence above the boundary is important to tropical cyclone intensification and rapid intensification, but the three-dimensional structures of the sub-grid-scale (SGS) eddy have not been revealed due to the lack of observational data. In this study, two numerical simulations of Super Typhoon Rammasun (2014) were conducted with the Advanced Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model by incorporating the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique, in which the enhanced eyewall convection and the process of rapid intensification are captured. Consistent with previous observational studies, the strong turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is found throughout the whole eyewall inside of the radius of maximum wind in both experiments. The simulations indicate that the strong TKE is associated with horizontal rolls with the horizontal extent of 2–4 km, which are aligned azimuthally in the intense eyewall convection. It is indicated that the three-dimensional structures of the SGS eddy can be simulated with the vertical grid spacing of ∼100 m when the horizontal grid spacing is 74 m. It is suggested that there is considerable turbulence associated with azimuthally-aligned horizontal rolls in the mid-level eyewall of tropical cyclone.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
D. Mayer ◽  
F. Lever ◽  
D. Picconi ◽  
J. Metje ◽  
S. Alisauskas ◽  
...  

AbstractThe conversion of photon energy into other energetic forms in molecules is accompanied by charge moving on ultrafast timescales. We directly observe the charge motion at a specific site in an electronically excited molecule using time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-XPS). We extend the concept of static chemical shift from conventional XPS by the excited-state chemical shift (ESCS), which is connected to the charge in the framework of a potential model. This allows us to invert TR-XPS spectra to the dynamic charge at a specific atom. We demonstrate the power of TR-XPS by using sulphur 2p-core-electron-emission probing to study the UV-excited dynamics of 2-thiouracil. The method allows us to discover that a major part of the population relaxes to the molecular ground state within 220–250 fs. In addition, a 250-fs oscillation, visible in the kinetic energy of the TR-XPS, reveals a coherent exchange of population among electronic states.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Archit Chaturvedi

Abstract ATP Synthase is an essential molecule in cell and molecular biology. It is responsible for the production of ATP during cellular respiration, a molecule that provides the energy required to drive a number of cellular processes. In this paper, I explore the rotational physics of ATP Synthase’s rotor, a part of the protein that spins during the production of ATP. Firstly, I discuss some elementary rotational kinematics of the rotor. I then derive two alternate formulations for the total linear acceleration of the rotor. Finally, I derive formulas for the moment of inertia, angular momentum, net torque, and kinetic energy of the rotor. Through this, I hope to provide a theoretical and mathematical insight into the mechanics of ATP Synthase during the production of ATP.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ze Chen ◽  
Yufang Tian ◽  
Yinan Wang ◽  
Yongheng Bi ◽  
Xue Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract. Based on the quality-controlled observational spectral width data of the Beijing Mesosphere–Stratosphere–Troposphere (MST) radar in the altitudinal range of 3–19.8 km from 2012 to 2014, this paper analyzes the relationship between the proportion of negative turbulent kinetic energy (N-TKE) and the horizontal wind speed/horizontal wind vertical shear domain, and gives the distributional characteristics of atmospheric turbulence parameters obtained by using different calculation models. Three calculation models of the spectral width method were used in this study—namely, the H model (Hocking, 1985), N-2D model (Nastrom, 1997) and D-H model (Dehghan and Hocking, 2011). The results showed that the proportion of N-TKE in the H model increases with the horizontal wind speed and/or the vertical shear of horizontal wind speed, up to 80 %. When the horizontal wind speed is greater than 40 m·s−1, the proportion of N-TKE in the H model is greater than 60 %, and thus the H model is not applicable. When the horizontal wind speed is greater than 20 m s−1, the proportion of N-TKE in the N-2D model and D-H model increases with the horizontal wind speed, independent of the vertical shear of the horizontal wind speed, and the maximum values are 2 % and 4 %, respectively. However, it is still necessary to consider the applicability of the N-2D model and D-H model in some weather processes with strong winds. The distributional characteristics with height of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate 𝜀 and the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient Kz derived by the three models are consistent with previous studies. Still, there are differences in the values of turbulence parameters. Also, the range resolution of the radar has little effect on the differences in the range of turbulence parameters' values. The median values of 𝜀 in the H model, N-2D model and D-H model are 10−3.2–10−2.8 m2 s−3, 10−2.8–10−2.4 m2 s−3 and 10−3.0–10−2.5 m2 s−3, respectively. The median values of Kz in these three models are 100.18–100.67 m2 s−1, 100.57–100.90 m2 s−1 and 100.44–100.74 m2 s−1.


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