Bioenergy Production
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Author(s):  
Dharmendra D. Sapariya ◽  
Umang J. Patdiwala ◽  
Hitesh Panchal ◽  
P V Ramana ◽  
Jignesh Makwana ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo ◽  
Susantha Jayasundara ◽  
Ricardo de Oliveira Bordonal ◽  
Alan Rodrigo Panosso ◽  
Newton La Scala

Abstract This study was designed to assess the additional greenhouse (GHG) emissions including measurements of soil CO 2 -C emissions in sugarcane areas plus emissions associated with the recovery and transport operations of straw bales up to the factory gate for electricity production, contrasting with leaving all straw on the soil surface. The total additional GHG emissions considering the main sources evaluated ( i.e ., soil CO 2 -C, diesel use and N 2 O from straw), was estimated at 1,465 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 , resulting an emission factor of 212. 6 kg CO 2 eq ton -1 of straw recovered. Applying the parameters cited in this study for electricity or 2G ethanol production (GHG balance of emission and offset potential), our results showed that straw-based for electricity production would result in additional GHG emissions of (+) 860 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 . In contrast, applying the same study parameters for 2G ethanol production replacing gasoline, an avoided GHG emission of (-) 2,316 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 could be achieved. The route of recovering around 27% of sugarcane straw through bale system for bioelectricity production using technical parameters and industrial efficiency rate of this study could not be a sustainable option because the additional emissions can be higher than its potential to offset generated emissions, based on the emission factor of Brazilian energy matrix. Applying the same experimental parameters, the option of producing ethanol 2G with around 6.89 ton DM ha -1 of sugarcane straw could offset gasoline GHG emissions, contributing with sustainable energy systems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 303 ◽  
pp. 114137
Author(s):  
Nidia Elizabeth Ramirez-Contreras ◽  
Carlos A. Fontanilla-Díaz ◽  
Lain E. Pardo ◽  
Tulia Delgado ◽  
David Munar-Florez ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2453
Author(s):  
Sook-Kuan Lee ◽  
Huu-Sheng Lur ◽  
Chi-Te Liu

Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) possess versatile metabolic abilities and are widely applied in environmental bioremediation, bioenergy production and agriculture. In this review, we summarize examples of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) through biofertilization, biostimulation and biocontrol mechanisms to promote plant growth. They include improvement of nutrient acquisition, production of phytohormones, induction of immune system responses, interaction with resident microbial community. It has also been reported that PNSB can produce an endogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to alleviate abiotic stress in plants. Under biotic stress, these bacteria can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) of plants against pathogens. The nutrient elements in soil are significantly increased by PNSB inoculation, thus improving fertility. We share experiences of researching and developing an elite PNSB inoculant (Rhodopseudomonas palustris PS3), including strategies for screening and verifying beneficial bacteria as well as the establishment of optimal fermentation and formulation processes for commercialization. The effectiveness of PS3 inoculants for various crops under field conditions, including conventional and organic farming, is presented. We also discuss the underlying plant growth-promoting mechanisms of this bacterium from both microbial and plant viewpoints. This review improves our understanding of the application of PNSB in sustainable crop production and could inspire the development of diverse inoculants to overcome the changes in agricultural environments created by climate change.


Author(s):  
Konstantinos Domdouzis

The increasing environmental pollution resulting from the use of non-renewable fossil fuels as well as the development of economic dependencies among countries because of the lack of such types of fuels underline the intense need for the use of sustainable forms of energy. Biomass derived biofuels provide such an alternative. The main tasks of biomass feedstock production are planting and cultivation, harvest, storage, and transportation. A number of complex decisions characterize each of these tasks. These decisions are related to the monitoring of crop health, the improvement of crop productivity using innovative technologies, and the examination of limitations in existing processes and technologies associated with biomass feedstock production. Other critical issues are the development of sustainable methods for the delivery of the biomass while maintaining product quality. There is the need for the development of an automated integrated research tool based on resilience and sustainability which will allow the coordination of different research fields but also perform research on its own. The specific tool should aim in the optimization of different parameters which specify the research done and in the case of biomass feedstock production; such parameters are the transportation of biomass from the field to the biorefinery, the equipment used, and the biomass storage conditions. This optimization would enhance decision making in the field of bioenergy production. Based on the need for such an automated integrated research tool, this paper presents an information system that provides automated functionalities for better decision making in the bioenergy production field based on the collection and analysis of agricultural robot and sensor data.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Sarmite Rancane ◽  

To develop the scientific work, field trials were performed at the Research Institute of Agronomy of the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, in Skriveri in the time period from 2012 to 2016. Hypothesis of the thesis By using by-products of bioenergy production in fertilisation - fermentation residues or digestate and wood ash, it is possible to partially cover the requirements of energy grasses for nutrients, as well as to ensure their reuse. The aim of the thesis To find out the possibilities of growing reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) 'Bamse' and festulolium (× Festulolium pabulare) 'Felina' for energy production by using bioenergy production by-products in fertilisation – fermentation residues or digestate and wood ash, as well as to study possibilities of plant nutrient reuse in the system: soil – plants – digestate / ash – soil – plants. Research tasks 1. To evaluate digestate and wood ash as energy grasses fertilisers. 2. To find out the optimal norm and the regime of use of digestate in reed canary grass fertilisation. 3. To study the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium circulation cycle in the system: soil – plants – digestate / ash – soil – plants. 4. To perform economic evaluation of reed canary grass and festulolium fertilisation. The structure of the research paper Chapter 1 - The literature review includes five subchapters. The chapter provides a brief overview of bioenergy production technologies, examines perennial grasses in the context of bioenergy production, evaluates agrotechnical measures to ensure adequate grass biomass yield and quality for biogas and fuel feedstock production, examines plant nutrient circulation in bioenergy crop production systems, and provides agronomic assessment of by-product – digestate and ash fertiliser for use in energy grass plantations. Chapter 2 - Materials and Methods includes two subchapters. The chapter describes the methodology of test establishment, the studied material, the observations and analyzes performed, describes the meteorological conditions and describes the statistical analysis of data. Chapter 3 - The results and discussion include six subsections. The chapter analyzes the obtained results on reed canary grass and festulolium yield and changes in yield structure and quality due to the use of different fertilisers, norms and regimes, performing grassland dry matter yield inventory by mowing once and twice a year. The remove of plant nutrients from soil with dry matter yield, as well as changes in soil agrochemical parameters due to fertilisation were evaluated. An economic evaluation of reed canary grass and festulolium fertilisation has been performed. The conclusions include answers to the research tasks. The paper contains 34 tables, 41 figures, 53 annexes and 353 scientific source references.


Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1256
Author(s):  
Simone Marzeddu ◽  
Andrea Cappelli ◽  
Andrea Ambrosio ◽  
María Alejandra Décima ◽  
Paolo Viotti ◽  
...  

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a fundamental tool for evaluating the environmental and energy load of a production cycle. Its application to renewable energy production systems offers the possibility of identifying the environmental benefits of such processes—especially those related to the by-products of production processes (i.e., digestion or biochar). Biochar has received worldwide interest because of its potential uses in bioenergy production, due to its coproducts (bio-oil and syngas), as well as in global warming mitigation, sustainable agriculture, pollutant removal, and other uses. Biochar production and use of soil is a strategy for carbon sequestration that could contribute to the reduction of emissions, providing simultaneous benefits to soil and opportunities for bioenergy generation. However, to confirm all of biochar’s benefits, it is necessary to characterize the environmental and energy loads of the production cycle. In this work, soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, use of fertilizers, and use of water for irrigation have been considered in the biochar’s LCA, where the latter is used as a soil conditioner. Primary data taken from experiments and prior studies, as well as open-source available databases, were combined to evaluate the environmental impacts of energy production from biomass, as well as the biochar life cycle, including pre- and post-conversion processes. From the found results, it can be deduced that the use of gasification production of energy and biochar is an attractive strategy for mitigating the environmental impacts analyzed here—especially climate change, with a net decrease of about −8.3 × 103 kg CO2 eq. Finally, this study highlighted strategic research developments that combine the specific characteristics of biochar and soil that need to be amended.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7654
Author(s):  
Md. Alhaz Uddin ◽  
Sk. Yasir Arafat Siddiki ◽  
Shams Forruque Ahmed ◽  
Zahidul Islam Rony ◽  
M. A. K. Chowdhury ◽  
...  

The disposal of olive wastes and their wastewater is a major problem worldwide. An important recycling chain can be formed through biogas production and energy conversion from olive waste. This study developed an efficient and effective sustainable model for biogas production using anaerobic digestion conditions with the co-digestion of pretreated olive waste. The sample used was hard olive pomace, which was dried in an oven before being crushed to fine particles with a mortar and pestle. The sample was analyzed by a CE-440 Elemental Analyzer, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis was performed using Shimadzu IRTracer-100. Through the analysis, a substantial amount of electrical energy of 769 kWh/t was found to be generated per ton of olive pomace due to the high volatile solid (VS) percentage of organic waste material incorporated during the calculation. Reduced land area for landfilling olive waste was calculated to be 108 m2 per year, whereas the potential to reduce landfill leachate production was evaluated to be 0.32 m3 per year.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sara Gushgari-Doyle ◽  
Marcus Schicklberger ◽  
Yifan V. Li ◽  
Robert Walker ◽  
Romy Chakraborty

Endophytic nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria are essential members of the microbiome of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered to be an important commodity crop in bioenergy production. While endophytic diazotrophs are known to provide fixed atmospheric nitrogen to their host plant, there are many other plant growth-promoting (PGP) capabilities of these organisms to be demonstrated. The diversity of PGP traits across different taxa of switchgrass-colonizing endophytes is understudied, yet critical for understanding endophytic function and improving cultivation methods of important commodity crops. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of three diazotrophic endophytes: Azospirillum agricola R1C, Klebsiella variicola F10Cl, and Raoultella terrigena R1Gly. Strains R1C and F10Cl were isolated from switchgrass and strain R1Gly, while isolated from tobacco, is demonstrated herein to colonize switchgrass. Each strain exhibited highly diverse genomic and phenotypic PGP capabilities. Strain F10Cl and R1Gly demonstrated the highest functional similarity, suggesting that, while endophyte community structure may vary widely based on host species, differences in functional diversity are not a clearly delineated. The results of this study advance our understanding of diazotrophic endophyte diversity, which will allow us to design robust strategies to improve cultivation methods of many economically important commodity crops.


Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2018
Author(s):  
Elisabetta Loffredo ◽  
Claudia Carnimeo ◽  
Roccangelo Silletti ◽  
Carmine Summo

Anaerobic digestion of biomass has increasing implementation for bioenergy production. The solid by-product of this technology, i.e., the digestate, has relevant potential in agricultural and environmental applications. This study explored the capacity of a digestate from mixed feedstock to remove from water four endocrine-disrupting chemicals, namely the pesticides metribuzin (MET) and boscalid (BOS) and the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). The surface micromorphology and functional groups of the digestate were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Results of sorption kinetics showed that all compounds reached the steady state in a few hours according to a pseudo-first-order model in the cases of MET and OP, a pseudo-second-order model for BOS and both models in the case of BPA. Data of adsorption isotherms were fitted to the Henry, Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equations. The adsorption of MET preferentially followed the non-linear Freundlich model, whereas the adsorption of the other compounds was properly described by both the linear and Freundlich models. The organic carbon partition coefficients, KOC, were 170, 1066, 256 and 2180 L kg−1 for MET, BOS, BPA and OP, respectively. The desorption of BOS, BPA and OP was slow and incomplete, indicating a phenomenon of hysteresis. In conclusion, the digestate showed a remarkable efficiency in the removal of the compounds, especially those with high hydrophobicity, thus behaving as a promising biosorbent for environmental remediation.


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