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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tanmay Ilame ◽  
Arpita Ghosh

PurposeWater is a vital natural resource without which life on earth would be impossible. Properties of synthetic dyes like high stability and noxious nature make it difficult to remove them from the effluent. This review focuses on the removal of synthetic dyes using nanoparticles (NPs) based on the adsorption principle.Design/methodology/approachAdsorption technique is widely used to remove synthetic dyes from their aqueous solution for decades. Synthetic dye removal using NPs is promising, less energy-intensive and has become popular in recent years. NPs are in high demand for treating wastewater using the adsorption principle due to their tiny size and vast surface area. To maximise environmental sustainability, the utilisation of green-produced NPs as efficient catalysts for dye removal has sparked attention amongst scientists.FindingsThis review has prioritised research and development of optimal dye removal systems that can be used to efficiently remove a large quantity of dye in a short period while safeguarding the environment and producing fewer harmful by-products. The removal efficiency of synthetic dye using different NPs in wastewater treatment varies mostly between 75% to almost 100%. This review will aid in the scaling up of the wastewater treatment process.Research limitations/implicationsThere is a lack of research emphasis on the safe disposal of NPs once the reuse efficiency significantly drops. The relevance of cost analysis is equally critical, yet only a few papers discuss cost-related information.Originality/valueComprehensive and planned research in this area can aid in the development of long-term wastewater treatment technology to meet the growing need for safe and reliable water emphasising reuse and desorption efficiency of the NPs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 2062-2065
Madona Baby ◽  
Prathibha Kulkarni

Ayurveda is mainly based on dosha, dhatu and mala. Mala are the substances or waste matters That are excreted out of the body. They are by-products formed as a result of various physiological activities happening inside the body. Purisha, Mutra and Sweda are considered as the main excretory product of the body and called mala. Urine formation is one of the important physiological activities of the human body in which Mutravaha Moola and waste products of Ahara Rasa contribute significantly. Basti, Mutravaha Srotansi, Vrikka, Mutravaha Nadies, Mutravaha Dhamanis and Mutravaha Sira, etc. Are major body parts which play a significant role in the process of urine formation. While modern science described the urinary bladder, nephrons, kidneys, ureters and urethra, etc as vital parts of urine formations. This article tries to critically review the formation of urine according to Ayurveda. Keywords: Mala, Mutra, Mutravaha Srothas, urine formation

2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114194
Antonio Alfonzo ◽  
Vito Armando Laudicina ◽  
Sofia Maria Muscarella ◽  
Luigi Badalucco ◽  
Giancarlo Moschetti ◽  

Graziana Difonzo ◽  
Giuditta Gennaro ◽  
Antonella Pasqualone ◽  
Francesco Caponio

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 295
Tumisi Beiri Jeremiah Molelekoa ◽  
Thierry Regnier ◽  
Laura Suzanne da Silva ◽  
Wilma Augustyn

The food and pharmaceutical industries are searching for natural colour alternatives as required by consumers. Over the last decades, fungi have emerged as producers of natural pigments. In this paper, five filamentous fungi; Penicillium multicolour, P. canescens, P. herquie, Talaromyces verruculosus and Fusarium solani isolated from soil and producing orange, green, yellow, red and brown pigments, respectively, when cultured on a mixture of green waste and whey were tested. The culture media with varying pH (4.0, 7.0 and 9.0) were incubated at 25 °C for 14 days under submerged and solid-state fermentation conditions. Optimal conditions for pigment production were recorded at pH 7.0 and 9.0 while lower biomass and pigment intensities were observed at pH 4.0. The mycelial biomass and pigment intensities were significantly higher for solid-state fermentation (0.06–2.50 g/L and 3.78–4.00 AU) compared to submerged fermentation (0.220–0.470 g/L and 0.295–3.466 AU). The pigment intensities were corroborated by lower L* values with increasing pH. The λmax values for the pigments were all in the UV region. Finally, this study demonstrated the feasibility of pigment production using green waste:whey cocktails (3:2). For higher biomass and intense pigment production, solid-state fermentation may be a possible strategy for scaling up in manufacturing industries.

Asahel Benitez-Hernández ◽  
Elena Palacios ◽  
Erick J. Núñez-Vázquez ◽  
Ernesto García-Mendoza ◽  
Olivia Arjona ◽  

Dang Tung Dang ◽  
Manh Tuan Nguyen ◽  
Tan Phong Nguyen ◽  
Tomoo Isawa ◽  
Yasutaka Ta ◽  

AbstractSteelmaking slag is one of the most massive industrial by-products generated during steelmaking processes. This paper presents the current steelmaking slag production status and its potential to use as mineral aggregates in base/sub-base layer of road pavement. The mechanical properties of steelmaking slag were confirmed by the test method specified in Vietnam specification. The volume stability test of the slag was conducted based on JIS A 5015-2018 (Japanese Industrial Standard: Iron and steel slag for road construction). From the results, it was confirmed that steelmaking slag can satisfy all the mechanical requirements specified in Vietnam specification and the requirements regarding stability specified in JIS A 5015-2018. In addition, it was found that the elastic modulus of steelmaking slag applied as a base or sub-base layer in pavement was higher than that of the conventional graded aggregate made from mineral aggregate. Therefore, the thickness of pavement can be reduced by using steelmaking slag, and the construction cost can be lower.

2022 ◽  
Vol 171 ◽  
pp. 104340
G. Marcolini ◽  
M. Toselli ◽  
P. Gioacchini ◽  
C. Ciavatta ◽  
M. Quartieri ◽  

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3431
Daria Zamojska ◽  
Adriana Nowak ◽  
Ireneusz Nowak ◽  
Ewa Macierzyńska-Piotrowska

Since 2006, the use of growth-promoting antibiotics has been banned throughout the European Union. To meet the expectations of livestock farmers, various studies have been carried out with the use of lactic acid bacteria. Scientists are trying to obtain the antimicrobial effect against the most common pathogens in large-scale farms. Supplementing the diet of broilers with probiotics (live, nonpathogenic microorganisms) stabilized the intestinal microbiota, which improved the results of body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI). The positive effect of probiotics based on lactic acid bacteria has been shown to prevent the occurrence of diarrhea during piglet weaning. The antagonistic activity of postbiotics (inanimate bacteria, cell components, or post-fermentation by-products) from post-culture media after lactobacilli cultures has been proven on Staphylococcus aureus—the pathogen most often responsible for causing mastitis among dairy cows. The article aims to present the latest research examining the antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria on the most common pathogens in broilers, piglets, pigs, and cow farms.

Isabel Schestak ◽  
David Styles ◽  
Kirsty Black ◽  
A. Prysor Williams

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