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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9863
Natalia Muñoz-López ◽  
Anna Biedermann ◽  
José Luis Santolaya-Sáenz ◽  
José Ignacio Valero-Martín ◽  
Ana Serrano-Tierz

The sustainability improvement of museums and exhibitions is a recent concern for multiple organisations. The application of sustainability criteria is one of the most important strategies of innovation in design activities, products, and service systems. This study analyses the sustainability of two alternatives to an itinerant cultural exhibition service. The exhibition travels to 12 destinations over 3 years and is within a space of 300 m2. In the first alternative, the contents are printed and exposed on a physical medium, and in the second, audiovisual media projects the contents on the walls. Life cycle sustainability assessment is applied to evaluate the impacts in the environmental dimension and the economic and social dimensions. The calculation of indicators, such as the greenhouse gas emissions, total costs, and working time, which are referred to each sustainability dimension, is conducted. A descriptive, comparative study was performed to identify the impact factors with a higher incidence. The results demonstrate that the audiovisual exhibition is more sustainable than the printed exhibition, with a difference of 8.7%, 7%, and 6.6% in GWP100, CE, and TW indicators, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 150-155
Lukas P. Fesenfeld

In light of limited international climate policy efforts, many are pessimistic about effective climate change mitigation. However, there is still a chance for a global Green New Deal which would reduce both socio-economic inequalities and greenhouse gas emissions. Unfolding feedbacks between technological, behavioral, and political changes provide an opportunity for transforming our societies. Yet, a Green New Deal in line with the green growth paradigm seems politically more feasible than a radical approach that rests upon a de-growth paradigm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lena Klaaßen ◽  
Christian Stoll

AbstractGlobal greenhouse gas emissions need to reach net-zero around mid-century to limit global warming to 1.5 °C. This decarbonization challenge has, inter alia, increased the political and societal pressure on companies to disclose their carbon footprints. As a response, numerous companies announced roadmaps to become carbon neutral or even negative. The first step on the journey towards carbon neutrality, however, is to quantify corporate emissions accurately. Current carbon accounting and reporting practices remain unsystematic and not comparable, particularly for emissions along the value chain (so-called scope 3). Here we present a framework to harmonize scope 3 emissions by accounting for reporting inconsistency, boundary incompleteness, and activity exclusion. In a case study of the tech sector, we find that corporate reports omit half of the total emissions. The framework we present may help companies, investors, and policy makers to identify and close the gaps in corporate carbon footprints.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (21) ◽  
pp. 2679
Victor Goman ◽  
Vladimir Prakht ◽  
Vadim Kazakbaev ◽  
Vladimir Dmitrievskii

This study carried out a comparative analysis of indicators of electricity consumption and CO2 emissions for four-pole induction motors (IMs) of efficiency classes IE3 and IE4 with a rated power of 2.2–200 kW in a variable speed pump unit. In addition, innovative IE4 converter-fed synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) were evaluated. The comparison was derived from the manufacturer’s specifications for the power drive systems (PDSs) at various rotational speeds and loads. The results showed that the emission indicators for IE3 class motors were significantly worse compared with IE4 class motors for low power ratings, which make up the vast majority of electric motors in service. This justifies expanding the mandatory power range for IE4 motors to at least 7.5–200 kW or even 0.75–200 kW, as it will dramatically contribute to the achievement of the new ambitious goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the operational advantages of IE4 SynRMs over IE4 IMs were demonstrated, such as their simpler design and manufacturing technology at a price comparable to that of IE3 IMs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Benjamin R. K. Runkle ◽  
Angelia L. Seyfferth ◽  
Matthew C. Reid ◽  
Matthew A. Limmer ◽  
Beatriz Moreno-García ◽  

Rice is a staple food and primary source of calories for much of the world. However, rice can be a dietary source of toxic metal(loid)s to humans, and its cultivation creates atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions and requires high water use. Because rice production consumes a significant amount of natural resources and is a large part of the global agricultural economy, increasing its sustainability could have substantial societal benefits. There are opportunities for more sustainable field production through a combination of silicon (Si) management and conservation irrigation practices. As a Si-rich soil amendment, rice husks can limit arsenic and cadmium uptake, while also providing plant vigor in drier soil conditions. Thus, husk addition and conservation irrigation may be more effective to attenuate the accumulation of toxic metal(loid)s, manage water usage and lower climate impacts when implemented together than when either is implemented separately. This modified field production system would take advantage of rice husks, which are an underutilized by-product of milled rice that is widely available near rice farm sites, and have ~10% Si content. Husk application could, alongside alternate wetting and drying or furrow irrigation management, help resolve multiple sustainability challenges in rice production: (1) limit arsenic and cadmium accumulation in rice; (2) minimize greenhouse gas emissions from rice production; (3) decrease irrigation water use; (4) improve nutrient use efficiency; (5) utilize a waste product of rice processing; and (6) maintain plant-accessible soil Si levels. This review presents the scientific basis for a shift in rice production practices and considers complementary rice breeding efforts. It then examines socio-technical considerations for how such a shift in production practices could be implemented by farmers and millers together and may bring rice production closer to a bio-circular economy. This paper's purpose is to advocate for a changed rice production method for consideration by community stakeholders, including producers, millers, breeders, extension specialists, supply chain organizations, and consumers, while highlighting remaining research and implementation questions.

E. A. Alabushev ◽  
I. S. Bersenev ◽  
V. V. Bragin ◽  
A. A. Stepanova

The Paris Agreement, adopted in December of 2015 at the 21st session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties and effected from November of 2016, coordinates the efforts of states to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon dioxide. One of its largest emitters to the atmosphere is the metallurgical industry. Among the proposed ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is the widespread use of hydrogen in the ferrous metallurgy. An overview of the problems that the ferrous metallurgy will face when replacing carbon-containing fuels with hydrogen is presented. It was noted that the use of hydrogen in the ferrous metallurgy contains such technological risks as high cost in comparison with currently used fuels and reducing agents; explosion hazard and corrosion activity, the need for a radical reconstruction of thermal units when using hydrogen instead of traditional for the ferrous metallurgy natural, coke and blast furnace gases, as well as solid fuels. It is shown that minimizing these risks is not always possible or economically feasible, and the result of using hydrogen in the ferrous metallurgy instead of carbon-containing fuel from the point of view of reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be low with a significant increase of economic and social risks.

Eelco J. Rohling

Over recent decades, a wide variety of studies and assessment reports has portrayed a stark picture of humanity’s detrimental impacts on our planet’s life and environmental health. Climate change is at the heart of many of these impacts. This cannot be allowed to continue, given the relentless human population growth and ever-expanding energy and resource consumption. We have but one planet, and its ecosystem services are essential to our survival. As Rebalancing Our Climate reports, the doomsday scenario can still be averted; humanity stands at a crossroads where it must take the route of sustainable behavior. Decisive action can still make a significant difference to climate change. This is humanity’s greatest challenge. To have any chance of success, however, the time to act can be delayed no longer. Instead, it is right now: today is the future. This book documents a wealth of ways to adjust the trajectory of climate change. It outlines measures to drive massive reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, and to reflect part of the incoming energy from the Sun. For all measures, the book evaluates both advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it discusses the need to protect ourselves from impacts that have become inevitable already and looks at how society may be driven to get the job done. In short, this book provides powerful facts and arguments to support informed choices.

Fuels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 420-436
Xianai Huang ◽  
Ka Wing Ng ◽  
Louis Giroux ◽  
Marc Duchesne ◽  
Delin Li ◽  

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are used for steel production, particularly when recycling scrap material. In EAFs, carbonaceous material is charged with other raw materials or injected into molten slag to generate foam on top of liquid metal to increase energy efficiency. However, the consumption of fossil carbon leads to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). To reduce net GHG emissions from EAF steelmaking, the substitution of fossil carbon with sustainable biogenic carbon can be applied. This study explores the possibility of the substitution of fossil material with biogenic material produced by different pyrolysis methods and from various raw materials in EAF steelmaking processes. Experimental work was performed to study the effect of biogenic material utilization on steel and slag composition using an induction melting furnace with 50 kg of steel capacity. The interaction of biogenic material derived from different raw materials and pyrolysis processes with molten synthetic slag was also investigated using a tensiometer. Relative to other biogenic materials tested, a composite produced with densified softwood had higher intensity interfacial reactions with slag, which may be attributed to the rougher surface morphology of the densified biogenic material.

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