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2021 ◽  
S M Nazmuz Sakib

The OSI model has been virtually for 30 years and still plays a viable part in understanding how networks communicate. In fact, it is now part of the networking vernacular. The Organization International de Normalization (International Standards Organization, or ISO), which has been developing international standards since 1946.Adopted in 1984, the OSI Basic Reference Model defines a network tracery consisting of seven layers in the communications process. Each layer is having its own responsibilities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Moonika Raja ◽  
Jorunn Bjerkan ◽  
Ingjerd G. Kymre ◽  
Kathleen T. Galvin ◽  
Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt

Abstract Background Demographic changes are leading to an ageing population in Europe. People are becoming more dependent on digital technologies and health ministries invest increasingly in digitalisation. Societal digital demands impact older people and learning to use new telehealth systems and digital devices are seen as a means of securing their needs. Methods The present study undertakes a scoping review in order to map relevant evidence about telehealth and digital developments in society involving citizens aged 75 and over in European countries. It focuses on their experiences and the main barriers to, and facilitators of, societal digital demands. A framework proposed by Arksey and O`Malley was used to guide the scoping review process. The studies included in the review covered telehealth, digital technology and digital devices, and the context covered participants` own home or surroundings. A comprehensive search on PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Open Grey was undertaken. Results Out of 727 identified citations, 13 sources which met the inclusion criteria (9 original study articles, 2 theses, 1 letter about a product and 1 project report). Few of the studies identified have investigated European citizens 75 years and older separately. The studies included varied in their design, location and focus. Older people have experienced both telehealth and digital devices making life easier and the opposite. The outstanding facilitator found was that technology should be easy to use, and difficulty in remembering the instructions was seen as an important barrier. Interestingly, both social support and lack of social support were found as facilitators of using new devices. Conclusions Telehealth may give a sense of security but learning to use a new device often takes extra effort. Older people were more open to new devices if the possible advantages of the new technology outweighed the effort that would be involved in adopting a new strategy. As technology develops rapidly, and life expectancy in Europe is anticipated to rise continually, there is a need for new and additional research among older European citizens. Future research should cover the technical solutions most relevant to older people today, social support and participants` access to the devices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11278
Drault Fabien ◽  
Youssef Snoussi ◽  
Ivaldo Itabaiana ◽  
Robert Wojcieszak

The high life expectancy of the world population provokes increase in demand for food and energy. As a result, the intense industrialization and the application of fossil sources is responsible for high levels of CO2 emission and waste generation. To mitigate the CO2 emission a practical solution at the very short term is urgently needed. The capture of CO2 and its application in chemical processes for the valorization of residual biomass are of great importance nowadays. The application of CO2 in the selective carboxylation of furoic acid for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a bio-based monomer, has been an important step towards obtaining biopolymers to replace petroleum-based plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In this project report, we discuss on the current challenges for obtaining the 2,5-FDCA precursor from the furfural in two main routes involving oxidation and carboxylation via heterogeneous catalysis. We present the main objectives and discuss the importance of this research for the development of more sustainable processes.

2021 ◽  
M Adeogun ◽  
J Bunch ◽  
A Dexter ◽  
C Dondi ◽  
T Murta ◽  

E-psychologie ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 35-37
Tomáš Řiháček ◽  
Pavel Matějka

An expert team from Brno University of Technology and Masaryk University is developing a web application to provide therapists with feedback based on automatic processing of regularly collected questionnaire data and audio recordings from therapy sessions (from project report).

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
Tekilil Wolde

The research was conducted in chaha wereda gurage zone SNNP region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess opportunity and challenges of degraded land rehabilitation. From the total population of the study area 20% (73) respondents were selected in order to achieve the objective of the study at hand, for the study both primary and secondary data was generated. The primary data collection was started with a preliminary survey followed by a key informant interview, focus group discussion, and household survey with questionnaires. The secondary data were collected from books, unpublished thesis, project report, and workshops, open ended questionnaire and checklists for interview. The households were selected using stratified sampling technique (Cochran) sample size formula the process of analysis of the study was carried out using qualitative description and quantitative analysis. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the quantitative data were analyzed frequency and percentage when appropriate the qualitative data were discussed to substantiate the study. And the results were expressed in the form of tables and graphs. The findings of the study indicated that limited labor availability, high cost of maintenance. Lack of knowledge, soil conditions, high surfaces runoff, poor vegetation coverage, poor monitoring and evaluation, poor implementation and poor training on the technology use are major challenges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-77
Zhijie Jia

This project report describes the International Forum on ICH Education and Formation as a Scholarily Discipline held at Beijing Normal University on December 5-6, 2020. The author reviews the key topics and themes explored during the forum, which was focused on the development of educational programs and curriculum related to intangible cultural heritage (ICH).

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