knowledge distillation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Rui Li ◽  
Cheng Yang ◽  
Tingwei Li ◽  
Sen Su

Relation extraction (RE), an important information extraction task, faced the great challenge brought by limited annotation data. To this end, distant supervision was proposed to automatically label RE data, and thus largely increased the number of annotated instances. Unfortunately, lots of noise relation annotations brought by automatic labeling become a new obstacle. Some recent studies have shown that the teacher-student framework of knowledge distillation can alleviate the interference of noise relation annotations via label softening. Nevertheless, we find that they still suffer from two problems: propagation of inaccurate dark knowledge and constraint of a unified distillation temperature . In this article, we propose a simple and effective Multi-instance Dynamic Temperature Distillation (MiDTD) framework, which is model-agnostic and mainly involves two modules: multi-instance target fusion (MiTF) and dynamic temperature regulation (DTR). MiTF combines the teacher’s predictions for multiple sentences with the same entity pair to amend the inaccurate dark knowledge in each student’s target. DTR allocates alterable distillation temperatures to different training instances to enable the softness of most student’s targets to be regulated to a moderate range. In experiments, we construct three concrete MiDTD instantiations with BERT, PCNN, and BiLSTM-based RE models, and the distilled students significantly outperform their teachers and the state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-55
Manish Gupta ◽  
Puneet Agrawal

In recent years, the fields of natural language processing (NLP) and information retrieval (IR) have made tremendous progress thanks to deep learning models like Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs) networks, and Transformer [ 121 ] based models like Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) [ 24 ], Generative Pre-training Transformer (GPT-2) [ 95 ], Multi-task Deep Neural Network (MT-DNN) [ 74 ], Extra-Long Network (XLNet) [ 135 ], Text-to-text transfer transformer (T5) [ 96 ], T-NLG [ 99 ], and GShard [ 64 ]. But these models are humongous in size. On the other hand, real-world applications demand small model size, low response times, and low computational power wattage. In this survey, we discuss six different types of methods (Pruning, Quantization, Knowledge Distillation (KD), Parameter Sharing, Tensor Decomposition, and Sub-quadratic Transformer-based methods) for compression of such models to enable their deployment in real industry NLP projects. Given the critical need of building applications with efficient and small models, and the large amount of recently published work in this area, we believe that this survey organizes the plethora of work done by the “deep learning for NLP” community in the past few years and presents it as a coherent story.

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