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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Prayag Tiwari ◽  
Amit Kumar Jaiswal ◽  
Sahil Garg ◽  
Ilsun You

Self-attention mechanisms have recently been embraced for a broad range of text-matching applications. Self-attention model takes only one sentence as an input with no extra information, i.e., one can utilize the final hidden state or pooling. However, text-matching problems can be interpreted either in symmetrical or asymmetrical scopes. For instance, paraphrase detection is an asymmetrical task, while textual entailment classification and question-answer matching are considered asymmetrical tasks. In this article, we leverage attractive properties of self-attention mechanism and proposes an attention-based network that incorporates three key components for inter-sequence attention: global pointwise features, preceding attentive features, and contextual features while updating the rest of the components. Our model follows evaluation on two benchmark datasets cover tasks of textual entailment and question-answer matching. The proposed efficient Self-attention-driven Network for Text Matching outperforms the state of the art on the Stanford Natural Language Inference and WikiQA datasets with much fewer parameters.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Fan Zhou ◽  
Pengyu Wang ◽  
Xovee Xu ◽  
Wenxin Tai ◽  
Goce Trajcevski

The main objective of Personalized Tour Recommendation (PTR) is to generate a sequence of point-of-interest (POIs) for a particular tourist, according to the user-specific constraints such as duration time, start and end points, the number of attractions planned to visit, and so on. Previous PTR solutions are based on either heuristics for solving the orienteering problem to maximize a global reward with a specified budget or approaches attempting to learn user visiting preferences and transition patterns with the stochastic process or recurrent neural networks. However, existing learning methodologies rely on historical trips to train the model and use the next visited POI as the supervised signal, which may not fully capture the coherence of preferences and thus recommend similar trips to different users, primarily due to the data sparsity problem and long-tailed distribution of POI popularity. This work presents a novel tour recommendation model by distilling knowledge and supervision signals from the trips in a self-supervised manner. We propose Contrastive Trajectory Learning for Tour Recommendation (CTLTR), which utilizes the intrinsic POI dependencies and traveling intent to discover extra knowledge and augments the sparse data via pre-training auxiliary self-supervised objectives. CTLTR provides a principled way to characterize the inherent data correlations while tackling the implicit feedback and weak supervision problems by learning robust representations applicable for tour planning. We introduce a hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder to identify tourists’ intentions and use the contrastive loss to discover subsequence semantics and their sequential patterns through maximizing the mutual information. Additionally, we observe that a data augmentation step as the preliminary of contrastive learning can solve the overfitting issue resulting from data sparsity. We conduct extensive experiments on a range of real-world datasets and demonstrate that our model can significantly improve the recommendation performance over the state-of-the-art baselines in terms of both recommendation accuracy and visiting orders.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Shui-Hua Wang ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Yu-Dong Zhang

( Aim ) COVID-19 has caused more than 2.28 million deaths till 4/Feb/2021 while it is still spreading across the world. This study proposed a novel artificial intelligence model to diagnose COVID-19 based on chest CT images. ( Methods ) First, the two-dimensional fractional Fourier entropy was used to extract features. Second, a custom deep stacked sparse autoencoder (DSSAE) model was created to serve as the classifier. Third, an improved multiple-way data augmentation was proposed to resist overfitting. ( Results ) Our DSSAE model obtains a micro-averaged F1 score of 92.32% in handling a four-class problem (COVID-19, community-acquired pneumonia, secondary pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy control). ( Conclusion ) Our method outperforms 10 state-of-the-art approaches.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

This paper presents the work done on recommendations of healthcare related journal papers by understanding the semantics of terms from the papers referred by users in past. In other words, user profiles based on user interest within the healthcare domain are constructed from the kind of journal papers read by the users. Multiple user profiles are constructed for each user based on different categories of papers read by the users. The proposed approach goes to the granular level of extrinsic and intrinsic relationship between terms and clusters highly semantically related relevant domain terms where each cluster represents a user interest area. The semantic analysis of terms is done starting from co-occurrence analysis to extract the intra-couplings between terms and then the inter-couplings are extracted from the intra-couplings and then finally clusters of highly related terms are formed. The experiments showed improved precision for the proposed approach as compared to the state-of-the-art technique with a mean reciprocal rank of 0.76.


2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sabina Piras ◽  
Alessandro Palermo ◽  
M. Saiid Saiidi
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (7) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Author(s):  
Yohan Bonescki Gumiel ◽  
Lucas Emanuel Silva e Oliveira ◽  
Vincent Claveau ◽  
Natalia Grabar ◽  
Emerson Cabrera Paraiso ◽  
...  

Unstructured data in electronic health records, represented by clinical texts, are a vast source of healthcare information because they describe a patient's journey, including clinical findings, procedures, and information about the continuity of care. The publication of several studies on temporal relation extraction from clinical texts during the last decade and the realization of multiple shared tasks highlight the importance of this research theme. Therefore, we propose a review of temporal relation extraction in clinical texts. We analyzed 105 articles and verified that relations between events and document creation time, a coarse temporality type, were addressed with traditional machine learning–based models with few recent initiatives to push the state-of-the-art with deep learning–based models. For temporal relations between entities (event and temporal expressions) in the document, factors such as dataset imbalance because of candidate pair generation and task complexity directly affect the system's performance. The state-of-the-art resides on attention-based models, with contextualized word representations being fine-tuned for temporal relation extraction. However, further experiments and advances in the research topic are required until real-time clinical domain applications are released. Furthermore, most of the publications mainly reside on the same dataset, hindering the need for new annotation projects that provide datasets for different medical specialties, clinical text types, and even languages.


2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (7) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Author(s):  
Christian Berger ◽  
Philipp Eichhammer ◽  
Hans P. Reiser ◽  
Jörg Domaschka ◽  
Franz J. Hauck ◽  
...  

Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystems tend to grow both in scale and complexity, as they consist of a variety of heterogeneous devices that span over multiple architectural IoT layers (e.g., cloud, edge, sensors). Further, IoT systems increasingly demand the resilient operability of services, as they become part of critical infrastructures. This leads to a broad variety of research works that aim to increase the resilience of these systems. In this article, we create a systematization of knowledge about existing scientific efforts of making IoT systems resilient. In particular, we first discuss the taxonomy and classification of resilience and resilience mechanisms and subsequently survey state-of-the-art resilience mechanisms that have been proposed by research work and are applicable to IoT. As part of the survey, we also discuss questions that focus on the practical aspects of resilience, e.g., which constraints resilience mechanisms impose on developers when designing resilient systems by incorporating a specific mechanism into IoT systems.


Author(s):  
Farah Flayeh Alkhalid ◽  
Abdulhakeem Qusay Albayati ◽  
Ahmed Ali Alhammad

The main important factor that plays vital role in success the deep learning is the deep training by many and many images, if neural networks are getting bigger and bigger but the training datasets are not, then it sounds like going to hit an accuracy wall. Briefly, this paper investigates the current state of the art of approaches used for a data augmentation for expansion the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest X-ray images using different data augmentation methods (transformation and enhancement) the dataset expansion helps to rise numbers of images from 138 to 5520, the increasing rate is 3,900%, this proposed model can be used to expand any type of image dataset, in addition, the dataset have used with convolutional neural network (CNN) model to make classification if detected infection with COVID-19 in X-ray, the results have gotten high training accuracy=99%


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