Theoretical Framework
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Author(s):  
Alaa Mansour Zalata ◽  
Collins G. Ntim ◽  
Mostafa Hussien Alsohagy ◽  
John Malagila

AbstractPast evidence generally suggests that the presence of female directors on corporate boards tends to improve earnings quality due to these directors’ superior monitoring abilities. However, it is not clear which characteristics and skills of female directors drive such abilities. In this paper, we focus on the financial background of female directors, an area which remains largely unexplored in existing literature. The results show that the participation of female directors with relevant financial background improves earnings quality more than the participation of female directors without such background. In addition, our findings suggest that only female directors possessing relevant financial background and having fewer outside directorships are able to mitigate earnings management and therefore overcommitting expert female directors with more outside directorships would diminish their monitoring ability. We did not find any evidence suggesting that female directors without relevant financial background are able to mitigate earnings management, irrespective of their outside directorships or tenure. We interpret our findings within a theoretical framework that draws on a number of economic and social theories. The results are generally robust after controlling for potential endogeneity problems.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Batchelor ◽  
Marc Aurel Schnabel

Smart Heritage leverages the past to transform cities into smart cities. It bridges a theoretical framework between the existing smart cities and heritage discourses and can benefit both the smart and heritage of aspirations of cities. The recent increase in the preparation of smart city policies by local governments in Australia provides an opportunity to examine how the recent generation of smart city strategic documents implement Smart Heritage. This paper will investigate how three local government smart city policies in Australia; City Futures Strategy by Logan City Council, Lake Mac Smart City Smart Council: Digital Economy Strategy 2016-2020 by Lake Macquarie City Council, and Smart, Connected Brisbane by Brisbane City Council; implement Smart Heritage. It will also briefly discuss the areas in the policies where further implementation of Smart Heritage can support the smart city ambitions of the cities. The main findings are the policies subtly implement Smart Heritage, and it is most present in high-level definitions and objectives. There is a need to develop Smart Heritage lower-level provisions and initiatives as there is a lack of these across the policies. Nevertheless, there is ample theoretical overlap between Smart Heritage and the policies to further implement Smart Heritage within the existing policy frameworks.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Batchelor ◽  
Marc Aurel Schnabel

Smart Heritage leverages the past to transform cities into smart cities. It bridges a theoretical framework between the existing smart cities and heritage discourses and can benefit both the smart and heritage of aspirations of cities. The recent increase in the preparation of smart city policies by local governments in Australia provides an opportunity to examine how the recent generation of smart city strategic documents implement Smart Heritage. This paper will investigate how three local government smart city policies in Australia; City Futures Strategy by Logan City Council, Lake Mac Smart City Smart Council: Digital Economy Strategy 2016-2020 by Lake Macquarie City Council, and Smart, Connected Brisbane by Brisbane City Council; implement Smart Heritage. It will also briefly discuss the areas in the policies where further implementation of Smart Heritage can support the smart city ambitions of the cities. The main findings are the policies subtly implement Smart Heritage, and it is most present in high-level definitions and objectives. There is a need to develop Smart Heritage lower-level provisions and initiatives as there is a lack of these across the policies. Nevertheless, there is ample theoretical overlap between Smart Heritage and the policies to further implement Smart Heritage within the existing policy frameworks.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1354067X2110272
Author(s):  
Márcio N de Abreu ◽  
Luca Tateo ◽  
Giuseppina Marsico

In this article, we use the theoretical framework of affective logic to discuss the underlying cultural psychological aspects of racial signifying practices. We provide an analysis of the controversies around the music video “Vai Malandra,” by Brazilian pop singer Anitta, as a case study. Departing from the theoretical assumption that our primary relationship with the phenomenal world is affective (though culturally mediated), we argue that our personal trajectories and emotional reords provide our experiences with an affective dimension that both precedes and influences any logical assessment of reality and that makes our sense-making processes unique. Thus, we suggest that, in the arena of racial signifying practices, we must always look beyond the person’s ability to critically position themselves racially to consider the affective dimension of the relationship between the personal and the cultural as a fundamental element in the production of racial discourse.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 1124-1134
Author(s):  
Muddasser Jatala ◽  
Syed Akmal Hussain ◽  
Akhlaq Ahmad

Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to define and analyse the lawyers' movement in Pakistan remains an active social movement from 2007 to 2009. Methodology: Qualitative research approach is the utmost appropriate approach to explore the resources mobilization process, in the lawyers’ movement in Pakistan. To achieve deeper insights into the actions, perceptions, and experiences of the respondents in the lawyers' movement of Pakistan, almost 20 open-ended interviews were taken in-depth and mostly face-to-face interviews. Give one more line of info about methodology. Main Findings: The lawyers' movement emerged in March 2007 in reaction to the unconstitutional dismissal of Chief Justice (CJ) of Supreme Court Pakistan by former General Pervez Musharraf. The lawyers' movement was the ultimate result of judicial-executive contention in Pakistan. Applications of the Study: This paper will offer analyses of the lawyers' movement in the context of a social movement from a non-western country like Pakistan. This paper seeks to examine the lawyers’ movement (2007–2009) to explore the resource mobilization in the lawyers' movement in Pakistan. Novelty/Originality of this study: The resource mobilization theory (RMT) has been utilized as the theoretical framework with the acumen of qualitative approach for this investigation in the non-western setting.


2021 ◽  
pp. 026377582110246
Author(s):  
Federico Ferretti

This paper addresses the engagement of critical geographers from Northeastern Brazil with regional planning, aiming at transforming society by acting on their region’s spaces. Extending and putting in relation literature on planning theory in the Global South and geographical scholarship on decoloniality, I explore new archives showing how the planning work that these geographers performed from 1957 to 1964 was an example of the ‘South’ re-elaborating and putting into practice notions arising from ‘international’ literature, such as that of ‘active geography’, and pioneering critical uses of instruments, such as mappings and statistics, that have often been associated with technocracy and political conservatism. Connected with peasants’ struggles and with a theoretical framework that is cognisant of the colonial histories and insurgent Black and indigenous traditions in the Northeast, these geographers’ works show that there is no ‘Southern Theory’ without a concrete engagement of scholars with social and political problems, one which is not limited to ‘participation’, but aims at challenging the political powers in place. Although not devoid of contradictions that are analysed here, the experiences of these Southern geographers acting in and for the South can provide precious insights into current (Northern or Southern) scholarly programmes aimed at resisting oppression.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ali Dehghanpour Farashah ◽  
Tomas Blomquist

PurposeQualified immigrants (QIs) and their work experiences have been studied using a wide variety of theoretical approaches with divergent characteristics. This paper reviews theoretical progress and proposes directions for future research and practice.Design/methodology/approachUsing relevant keywords, articles indexed by Web of Science in management, business, industrial relations and applied psychology were systematically searched for and analysed. In total, 60 theoretical articles published during 2008–2018 were included. The theoretical progress and future theoretical and practical challenges were organised based on the notions of equality, diversity and inclusion.FindingsEight theoretical approaches utilised to study QIs' work experiences were recognised: (1) human capital theory, (2) career capital theory, (3) theory of practice, (4) intersectionality, (5) social identity theory, (6) sensemaking, (7) cultural identity transition and (8) the career-centred approach. The contributions and limitations of each theoretical lens were then scrutinised. Overall, research on QIs still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework. As a step towards that, the paper proposes considering the role of organisations and labour market intermediaries, strategic view over the immigrant workforce, agency–institution play, identity–capital play and host–immigrant play.Research limitations/implicationsThe focus is on theory development and empirical papers with no clear theoretical foundation are excluded.Originality/valueThis review is the first attempt to summarise and direct the divergent research on the topic. The main contribution is setting an agenda for future research, particularly by proposing the elements of a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying QIs in the workplace.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 7039
Author(s):  
Laurence Pattacini

In a post-industrial world one of the foci of urbanism has been on the regeneration of former industrial sites along urban rivers. This is a contemporary urban design issue that needs further attention, especially in relation to urban forms and design interventions. This paper sets out to contribute to research in design by reviewing past theories and practices in order to inform the formation of conceptual ideas. These are of importance to inform practice and ensure responsive and responsible processes in planning and design. Such a review has hitherto been lacking, but with a renewed interest in urban densification, research in the design of cities is required. Thus, this paper provides a critical assessment of theories, which are identified and categorised in relation to urban riverside regeneration. For this study, urban design is considered as a craft requiring ‘savoir faire’ to ensure the functionality and quality of urban spaces. Transferable principles and ideas are identified in relation to the specific characteristics of riverside locations contributing to the definition of a ‘riverside urbanity’. It provides a theoretical framework identifying types of riverside landscapes, including the relationship between urban forms and river corridors.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eyal Bahar ◽  
Uri Arieli ◽  
Maayan Vizner Stern ◽  
Suchowski Haim

Abstract Striking a metallic nanostructure with a short and intense pulse of light excites a complex out-of-equilibrium distribution of electrons that rapidly interact and lose their mutual coherent motion. Due to the highly nonlinear dynamics, the photo-excited nanostructures may further emit energetic photons beyond the spectrum of the incident beam, where the shortest pulse duration is traditionally expected to induce the greatest nonlinear emission. Here, we coherently control these photo-induced extreme ultrafast dynamics by spectrally shaping a sub-10 fs pulse within the timescale of coherent plasmon excitations. Contrary to the common perception, we show that stretching the pulse to match its internal phase with the plasmon-resonance increases the second-order nonlinear emission by > 25%. The enhancement is observed only when shaping extreme-ultrashort pulses (< 20 fs), thus signifying the coherent electronic nature as a crucial source of the effect. We provide a detailed theoretical framework that reveals the optimal pulse shapes for enhanced nonlinear emission regarding the nanostructures’ plasmonic-resonances. The demonstrated truly-coherent plasma control paves the way to engineer rapid out-of-equilibrium response in solids state systems and light-harvesting applications.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michele Colli ◽  
Verena Stingl ◽  
Brian V. Waehrens

PurposeThe research aims to investigate how firms can develop their sensing capabilities for Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technology adoption through reframing their opportunity perceptions related to learnings from I4.0 initiatives.Design/methodology/approachThe research follows a design science research approach. Following the case of I4.0 technology introduction at a large food manufacturer, the paper develops a theoretical framework (artefact) and validates the applicability and efficacy of the framework within the case study.FindingsThe theoretical framework highlights the different temporal (short-term/long-term) and locational (direct/indirect) value dimensions of I4.0 opportunities. The findings show that the use of the framework can shift managers’ perception regarding the business value of an I4.0 technology implementation. Specifically, the framework reversed initially negative perceptions around a narrowly scoped business case towards an opportunity-oriented attitude exploring further potentials of the technology.Research limitations/implicationsThe research adds to the debate when and why firms engage in, and sustain their I4.0 initiatives by providing a novel perspective on firms’ sensing capabilities. As a single-case study, the framework requires further validation in practice.Practical implicationsThe proposed framework provides practitioners with an extended view concerning the potential value of digital transformation projects and serves as a conversational tool.Originality/valueThe presented wider frame for evaluating digital transformation projects, taking into account the more “intangible” value of their learnings, tackles the fundamental issue of translating explorative innovation efforts into exploitative value – a key challenge when dealing with innovation and one of the main barriers for the digital transformation.


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