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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (OOPSLA) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Author(s):  
Artem Pelenitsyn ◽  
Julia Belyakova ◽  
Benjamin Chung ◽  
Ross Tate ◽  
Jan Vitek

As a scientific programming language, Julia strives for performance but also provides high-level productivity features. To avoid performance pathologies, Julia users are expected to adhere to a coding discipline that enables so-called type stability. Informally, a function is type stable if the type of the output depends only on the types of the inputs, not their values. This paper provides a formal definition of type stability as well as a stronger property of type groundedness, shows that groundedness enables compiler optimizations, and proves the compiler correct. We also perform a corpus analysis to uncover how these type-related properties manifest in practice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 93-95
Author(s):  
Swati Malsariya ◽  
K Bharathi ◽  
B Pushpalatha

The series of actions happen in the genitals to expel the live product of fertilization from the uterus at the end of full-term pregnancy through the route of the vagina referred to as normal labour. This definition of labor is quite like the classical definition of Prasava which defines as at an appropriate time Prasuti Maruta acts in the right direction to rotate the fetus as per the pathway of the birth canal with head downward and fetus delivered out of Apathyapathya and can survive independently. The whole process is called Prasava or Sukhaprasava or Prakrutaprasava. In classics, the description regarding different stages of labour is found based on signs and symptoms of the parturient along with care to be given to her. In the present paper, Sukhaprasava is described completely including all its stages mentioned in classics and try to clarify the signs and symptoms mentioned as per the present scenario.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Guo Chen ◽  
Zhigui Liu ◽  
Guang Yu ◽  
Jianhong Liang

Multisensor data generalized fusion algorithm is a kind of symbolic computing model with multiple application objects based on sensor generalized integration. It is the theoretical basis of numerical fusion. This paper aims to comprehensively review the generalized fusion algorithms of multisensor data. Firstly, the development and definition of multisensor data fusion are analyzed and the definition of multisensor data generalized fusion is given. Secondly, the classification of multisensor data fusion is discussed, and the generalized integration structure of multisensor and its data acquisition and representation are given, abandoning the research characteristics of object oriented. Then, the principle and architecture of multisensor data fusion are analyzed, and a generalized multisensor data fusion model is presented based on the JDL model. Finally, according to the multisensor data generalized fusion architecture, some related theories and methods are reviewed, and the tensor-based multisensor heterogeneous data generalized fusion algorithm is proposed, and the future work is prospected.


Author(s):  
Gavin Koh

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jenny Anne Glikman ◽  
Beatrice Frank ◽  
Kirstie A. Ruppert ◽  
Jillian Knox ◽  
Carly C. Sponarski ◽  
...  

Over the last decade, there has been a remarkable increase in scientific literature addressing human–wildlife interactions (HWI) and associated concepts, such as coexistence, tolerance, and acceptance. Despite increased attention, these terms are rarely defined or consistently applied across publications. Indeed, the meaning of these concepts, especially coexistence, is frequently assumed and left for the reader to interpret, making it hard to compare studies, test metrics, and build upon previous HWI research. To work toward a better understanding of these terms, we conducted two World Café sessions at international conferences in Namibia, Africa and Ontario, Canada. Here, we present the array of perspectives revealed in the workshops and build upon these results to describe the meaning of coexistence as currently applied by conservation scientists and practitioners. Although we focus on coexistence, it is imperative to understand the term in relation to tolerance and acceptance, as in many cases these latter terms are used to express, measure, or define coexistence. Drawing on these findings, we discuss whether a common definition of these terms is possible and how the conservation field might move toward clarifying and operationalizing the concept of human-wildlife coexistence.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 136-147
Author(s):  
Artur Rafikov

The purpose of this work is to develop and test a definition of «advertising communications in politics». A retrospective method is used, which assumes an analysis of development of scientific approaches to the phenomenon of political advertising in the Russian political science. The result of this study is the definition of «advertising communications in politics», by which it is proposed to consider the process of transmission by a political actor to other political market participants of advertising information containing some data about this actor, their program and activitywhileusing various argumentation, as well as rhetorical, stylistic and other speech techniques, and the purpose of which is to influence the behavior of the selected electoral groups and to encourage them to commit certain targeted actions. The proposed definition allows identifying and analyzingof advertising communicationsin the digital environment with its new frameworks, such as for example posts and publications in social networks, as well as materials on the official websites of political actors. The theoretical significance of this work lies in the relevance of the proposed definition for the digital environment, as well as in the possibilityof using it for distinguishing advertising communications from PR communications, since the nature of the information transmitted in the process of communication is used as a criterion for distinction.


2021 ◽  
pp. ijgc-2021-003110
Author(s):  
Manon Christiane Daix ◽  
Laurence Gladieff ◽  
Alejandra Martinez ◽  
Gwenael Ferron ◽  
Martina Aida Angeles

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 384
Author(s):  
Idalis Villanueva Alarcón ◽  
Robert Jamaal Downey ◽  
Louis Nadelson ◽  
Yoon Ha Choi ◽  
Jana Bouwma-Gearhart ◽  
...  

The goal of our exploratory study was to examine how management and staff in engineering education making spaces are enacting equitable access amongst their users (e.g., students). We examined six different making space types categorized by Wilczynsky’s and Hoover’s classification of academic makerspaces, which considered scope, accessibility, users, footprint (size), and management and staffing. We reviewed research memos and transcripts of interviews of university makerspace staff, student staff, and leaders/administrators during two separate visits to these places that took place between 2017 and 2019. We inductively and deductively coded the data, and the findings suggested that equity of access was situational and contextual. From the results, we identified four additional considerations needed to ensure equitable access for engineering education making spaces: (a) spaces designed and operated for multiple points of student entry; (b) spaces operated to facilitate effective student making processes and pathways; (c) threats to expanded access: burdens and consequences; and (d) elevating student membership and equity through a culture of belonging. Together, the findings point toward a need for developing a more nuanced understanding of the concept of access that far supersedes a flattened definition of access to just space, equipment, and cost.


Author(s):  
Thomas Blomme

AbstractIn this paper we introduce a refined multiplicity for rational tropical curves in arbitrary dimension, which generalizes the refined multiplicity introduced by Block and Göttsche (Compositio Mathematica 152(1): 115–151, 2016). We then prove an invariance statement for the count of rational tropical curves in several enumerative problems using this new refined multiplicity. This leads to the definition of Block–Göttsche polynomials in any dimension.


Author(s):  
Niclas Schmitt ◽  
Charlotte S. Weyland ◽  
Lena Wucherpfennig ◽  
Christian Herweh ◽  
Martin Bendszus ◽  
...  

Abstract Background A drawback of Onyx, one of the most used embolic agents for endovascular embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM), is the generation of imaging artifacts (IA) in computed tomography (CT). Since these artifacts can represent an obstacle for the detection of periprocedural bleeding, this study investigated the effect of artifact reduction by an iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR) software in CT in a brain phantom. Methods Two different in vitro models with two-dimensional tube and three-dimensional AVM-like configuration were filled with Onyx 18. The models were inserted into a brain imaging phantom and images with (n = 5) and without (n = 10) an experimental hemorrhage adjacent were acquired. Afterwards, the iMAR algorithm was applied for artifact reduction. The IAs of the original and the post-processed images were graded quantitatively and qualitatively. Moreover, qualitative definition of the experimental hemorrhage was investigated. Results Comparing the IAs of the original and the post-processed CT images, quantitative and qualitative analysis showed a lower degree of IAs in the post-processed images, i.e. quantitative analysis: 2D tube model: 23.92 ± 8.02 Hounsfield units (HU; no iMAR; mean ± standard deviation) vs. 5.93 ± 0.43 HU (with iMAR; p < 0.001); qualitative analysis: 3D AVM model: 4.93 ± 0.18 vs. 3.40 ± 0.48 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, definition of the experimental hemorrhage was better in the post-processed images of both in vitro models (2D tube model: p = 0.004; 3D AVM model: p = 0.002). Conclusion The iMAR algorithm can significantly reduce the IAs evoked by Onyx 18 in CT. Applying iMAR could thus improve the accuracy of postprocedural CT imaging after embolization with Onyx in clinical practice.


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