General relativity is incomplete since it does not include the gravitational radiation reaction force and the interaction of gravitation with charged particles. General relativity is confusing because Einstein's covariance principle is invalid in physics. Moreover, there is no bounded dynamic solution for the Einstein equation. Thus, Gullstrand is right and the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physics press release is incorrect. Moreover, awards to Christodoulou reflect the blind faith toward Einstein and accumulated errors in mathematics. Note that the Einstein equation with an electromagnetic wave source has no valid solution unless a photonic energy-stress tensor with an anti-gravitational coupling is added. Thus, the photonic energy includes gravitational energy. The existence of anti-gravity coupling implies that the energy conditions in space-time singularity theorems of Hawking and Penrose cannot be satisfied, and thus are irrelevant. Also, the positive mass theorem of Yau and Schoen is misleading, though considered as an achievement by the Fields Medal. E = mc2 is invalid for the electromagnetic energy alone. The discovery of the charge-mass interaction establishes the need for unification of electromagnetism and gravitation and would explain many puzzles. Experimental investigations for further results are important.
The principle postulate of general relativity appears to be that curved space or curved spacetime is gravitational, in that mass curves the spacetime around it, and that this curved spacetime acts on mass in a manner we call gravity. Here, I use the theory of special relativity to show that curved spacetime can be non-gravitational, by showing that curve-linear space or curved spacetime can be observed without exerting a gravitational force on mass to induce motion- as well as showing gravity can be observed without spacetime curvature. This is done using the principles of special relativity in accordance with Einstein to satisfy the reader, using a gravitational equivalence model. Curved spacetime may appear to affect the apparent relative position and dimensions of a mass, as well as the relative time experienced by a mass, but it does not exert gravitational force (gravity) on mass. Thus, this paper explains why there appears to be more gravity in the universe than mass to account for it, because gravity is not the resultant of the curvature of spacetime on mass, thus the â€œdark matterâ€ and â€œdark energyâ€ we are looking for to explain this excess gravity doesnâ€™t exist.