Wireless network technically, refers to the category of network in which communication is carried out without using wires. In modern era wireless network has great importance because the communication is taking place with the use of radio waves. Thus, the use of ad-hoc network starts yielding a great importance in variety of applications. The certain research work is carried out in this particular field. MANET is a constructed from various mobility in the form of mobile nodes and anytime without any need of fixed infrastructure. MANET can be made on fly due to lack of fixed infrastructure. MANET is numerous threats types of attacks due to dynamic changing topologies and wireless medium. Security of the MANET becomes one of the challenging tasks. Black hole attacks is the main type of attack that are possible in MANET. Black hole node not forward any data packets to the neighbour node instead it drops all the data packets. Black hole attacks are bit hard to detect due to lack of centralized access. This research work concentrates to enhance the security of MANET by identifying and blocking black hole assaults from occurring. A reactive routing system such as Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector has previously been used to address security problems in the MANET (AODV). Various attack types were investigated, and the consequences of these assaults were detailed by describing how MANET performance was disrupted. Network Simulator 3 (NS3) is used for the simulation process.
The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration has revealed the first direct image of a black hole, as per the shadow of a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, other Kerr-like rotating black holes of modified gravity theories cannot be ignored, and they are essential as they offer an arena in which these theories can be tested through astrophysical observation. This motivates us to investigate asymptotically de Sitter rotating black holes wherein interpreting the cosmological constant Λ as the vacuum energy leads to a deformation in the vicinity of a black hole—new Kerr–de Sitter solution, which has a richer geometric structure than the original one. We derive an analytical formula necessary for the shadow of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes and then visualize the shadow of black holes for various parameters for an observer at given coordinates (r0,θ0) in the domain (r0,rc) and estimate the cosmological constant Λ from its shadow observables. The shadow observables of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes significantly deviate from the corresponding observables of the Kerr–de Sitter black hole over an appreciable range of the parameter space. Interestingly, we find a finite parameter space for (Λ, a) where the observables of the two black holes are indistinguishable.
Giant radio galaxies are arguably the least understood of jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN). We propose that radio galaxies are the product of large mergers that do not involve radio galaxies or radio quasars, such as in merging spiral galaxies, while giant radio galaxies emerge from a merger involving a parent that in the not-too-distant past harbored a radio galaxy. Predictions following from this are an upper limit to the number fraction of giant radio galaxies to radio galaxies, lower average redshift for giant radio galaxies, a higher incidence of high excitation for giant radio galaxies compared with radio galaxies, and lower average prograde black hole spin values for giant radio galaxies compared to radio galaxies and to bright radio quiet quasars.
The Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) metric is the simplest spacetime solution in general relativity with both a black hole event horizon and a cosmological event horizon. Since the Schwarzschild metric is the most simple solution of Einstein's equations with spherical symmetry and the de Sitter metric is the most simple solution of Einstein's equations with a positive cosmological constant, the combination in the SdS metric defines an appropriate background geometry for semi-classical investigation of Hawking radiation with respect to past and future horizons. Generally, the black hole temperature is larger than that of the cosmological horizon, so there is heat flow from the smaller black hole horizon to the larger cosmological horizon, despite questions concerning the definition of the relative temperature of the black hole without a measurement by an observer sitting in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Here we investigate the accelerating boundary correspondence (ABC) of the radiation in SdS spacetime without such a problem. We have solved for the boundary dynamics, energy flux and asymptotic particle spectrum. The distribution of particles is globally non-thermal while asymptotically the radiation reaches equilibrium.
In this paper, we study the perturbations of the charged static spherically symmetric black holes in the f(R)=R−2αR model by a scalar field. We analyze the quasinormal modes spectrum, superradiant modes, and superradiant instability of the black holes. The frequency of the quasinormal modes is calculated in the frequency domain by the third-order WKB method, and in the time domain by the finite difference method. The results by the two methods are consistent and show that the black hole stabilizes quicker for larger α satisfying the horizon condition. We then analyze the superradiant modes when the massive charged scalar field is scattered by the black hole. The frequency of the superradiant wave satisfies ω∈(μ2,ωc), where μ is the mass of the scalar field, and ωc is the critical frequency of the superradiance. The amplification factor is also calculated by numerical method. Furthermore, the superradiant instability of the black hole is studied analytically, and the results show that there is no superradiant instability for such a system.