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2022 ◽  
Vol 194 (2) ◽  
D’Souza Nishitha ◽  
Vadakkeveedu Narayan Amrish ◽  
Kumar Arun ◽  
Anish Kumar Warrier ◽  
Harikripa Narayana Udayashankar ◽  

AbstractThe present study aims to assess the extent of trace metal pollution in the sediments of Sita-Swarna estuary, west coast of India, and investigate their possible ecological risk on the aquatic environment. The sediment cores were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon, and trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu) at 2-cm intervals. The study revealed that sediments have deposited in relatively violent to very violent hydrodynamic energy conditions. Factor analysis indicated that the metal distribution is mainly controlled by Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides and organic carbon. Further, the geochemical approach, pollution indices, and statistical evaluation revealed moderate pollution in the catchment. From an ecotoxicological perspective, the estimated risk index (RI) value was found to less than 150, indicating low risk for aquatic life. Thus, this baseline study would help to adopt strategies in pollution control and protect the fragile marine environment.

2022 ◽  
Jessica El Khoury ◽  
Jordi Zamarreno ◽  
Allison Huguenot ◽  
Béatrice Py ◽  
Frédéric Barras

Aminoglycosides have been used against Gram-negative bacteria for decades. Yet, uncertainties remain about various aspects of their uptake mechanism. Moreover their killing efficiency is well known to vary as a function of growth conditions and types of metabolism used by the targeted bacterium. Here we show that RavA, an AAA+ ATPase from the MoxR subfamily, associated with its VWA-containing partner, ViaA sensitize E. coli to lethal concentrations of AG, including gentamycin (Gm) and tobramycin, but not of antibiotics of other classes. We show this sensitizing effect to be due to enhanced Gm uptake in a proton motive force dependent manner. We evaluated the influence of RavA ViaA throughout a series of growth conditions, including aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. This led us to observe that the sensitizing effect of RavA ViaA varies with the respiratory chain used, i.e. RavA ViaA influence was prominent in the absence of exogenous electron acceptor or with fumarate, i.e. in poor energy conservation conditions, and dispensable in the presence of nitrate or oxygen, i.e. in high level of energy conservation. We propose RavA ViaA to be able to sense energetic state of the cell and to be used under low energy conditions for facilitating uptake of chemicals across the membrane, including Gm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Uday Chand De ◽  
Sameh Shenawy ◽  
H. M. Abu-Donia ◽  
Nasser Bin Turki ◽  
Suliman Alsaeed ◽  

The main object of this paper is to investigate spacetimes admitting concircular curvature tensor in f(R) gravity theory. At first, concircularly flat and concircularly flat perfect fluid spacetimes in fR gravity are studied. In this case, the forms of the isotropic pressure p and the energy density σ are obtained. Next, some energy conditions are considered. Finally, perfect fluid spacetimes with divergence free concircular curvature tensor in f(R) gravity are studied; amongst many results, it is proved that if the energy-momentum tensor of such spacetimes is recurrent or bi-recurrent, then the Ricci tensor is semi-symmetric and hence these spacetimes either represent inflation or their isotropic pressure and energy density are constants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 92 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-31
Nívea G. Carramal ◽  
Daniel M. Oliveira ◽  
Alessandra S.M. Cacela ◽  
Matheus A.A. Cuglieri ◽  
Natasha P. Rocha ◽  

ABSTRACT Since the discovery of giant Aptian pre-salt reservoirs in Brazilian margin basins, the study of lacustrine carbonates has drawn great attention from the scientific community. Comparatively, minor attention was given to the characterization and genesis of the Mg-silicates (e.g., stevensite, kerolite) which are commonly associated with these carbonates. A systematic petrological study was performed in the Aptian Barra Velha Formation (BVF) within distinct structural compartments of the giant Lula Field in the Santos Basin, in order to recognize the patterns of primary formation and diagenetic alteration of these Mg-silicates. Mg-silicates occur as peloids, ooids, intraclasts, and fine-grained laminated deposits, either mixed in variable proportions with other particles, such as carbonate bioclasts and volcanic rock fragments, or constituting specific intrabasinal deposits. In the BVF interval, clay peloids and laminated deposits are associated with spherulitic and fascicular calcite aggregates, as substrate and hosts for these precipitates. Ooids are interpreted as formed at the sediment–water interface by the nucleation of concentric envelopes on the surface of particles (heterogeneous nucleation), through repeated rolling under gentle wave and current action. Laminated deposits, interpreted as precipitated directly from the water column (homogeneous nucleation) in highly supersaturated and low-hydrodynamic-energy environments, constitute extensive deposits in the BVF. Peloids were probably formed in intermediate energy conditions. Some ooidal arenites show porosity from the dehydration and contraction, and/or the dissolution of ooids. In some rocks, these pores are filled with fibrous calcite, while the remaining Mg-silicates are replaced by dolomite, calcite, or silica. A similar diagenetic pattern occurs in the laminated deposits, where magnesite and dolomite fill shrinkage pores formed along their characteristic wavy laminae. Owing to their elevated solubility, most of the Mg-silicates were dissolved, or intensely replaced by calcite, dolomite, or silica. The detailed petrologic analysis indicates that the original volumes of Mg-silicates were substantially larger, and that their deposition was widespread in the basin, including on structurally high areas. The types and intensity of diagenetic alteration of the Mg-silicate deposits are distinct for each structural compartment, being more intense towards the highs and closer to the overlying evaporites, which imposed a strong influence on reservoir quality.

Jafar Sadeghi ◽  
Mehdi Shokri ◽  
Saeed Noori Gashti ◽  
Behnam Pourhassan ◽  
Prabir Rudra

In this paper, we study the traversable wormhole solutions for a logarithmic corrected [Formula: see text] model by considering two different statements of shape [Formula: see text] and redshift [Formula: see text] functions. We calculate the parameters of the model including energy density [Formula: see text], tangential pressure [Formula: see text] and radial pressure [Formula: see text] for the corresponding forms of the functions. Then, we investigate different energy conditions such as null energy condition, weak energy condition, dominant energy condition and strong energy condition for our considered cases. Finally, we explain the satisfactory conditions of energy of the models by related plots.

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (2) ◽  
pp. 101-114
Ashaq Hussain Bhat ◽  
S K Pandita ◽  
H N Sinha ◽  
Bindra Thusu ◽  
Ahsan Ul Haq

Early Palaeozoic succession in Kupwara district of Jammu and Kashmir, North-western Himalaya comprise of sandstone, shale, carbonates and slate. The petrological properties of these rocks were used to work out the provenance, depositional environment and their diagenetic history. The siliciclastic sediments with interbedded carbonate rocks indicate shifts in sea level and consequent changes in energy conditions of the basin as well as biogenic interferences leading to carbonate precipitation in a shallow marine depositional environment. Provenance of these rocks has been of mixed nature with monocrystalline quartz dominant in sandstones indicating greater contribution from igneous sources.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (2) ◽  
pp. 3-14
Sudip Saha ◽  
Mrinal Kanti Roy ◽  
A.H.M. Selim Reza

Eight (8) distinct lithofacies within the fluviatile reach of the Tista River have been recognized by the detailed study of the sediments as exposed along the river bank and river bars. Genetically, the matrix-supported conglomerate (Gms), massive sand (Sm), Trough cross stratified sand (St), planar cross stratified sand (Sp), ripple laminated sand (Sr) comprise the channel deposits whereas, the ripple laminated sand (Sr), parallel laminated sand (Sh), clay with silt (Fl) and massive Clay (Fm) represent overbank fine deposits. The channel deposits were laid down under relatively high energy conditions compared to the sediments of overbank fines. The stratigraphic succession is indicative of fining upward sequence. The dominance of coarser-grained sediments at the base of the lithostratigraphic unit, especially the matrix supported conglomerate (Gms) suggests that the deposition took place in the proximal part of the Tista Fan, which might be of glacial origin. Massive clay (Fm) is the final stage of vertical aggradations in the overbanks, possibly in the floodplains, flood basins, and back swamps when the velocity of the transporting medium was virtually lean that promotes the deposition of clay materials from suspension.  The growth of cracks in the sedimentary succession is resulting from the compaction of the sediments and/or instant change in the paleoslope direction. The unimodal distribution of paleocurrent data with high mode value indicates mainly unidirectional sediment transport. The study of the lithofacies manifests that the deposits are produced by the braided river and debris flows. The modification of the depositional pattern from debris flow to overbank fines discloses the change of climatic condition in the Quaternary period.

2021 ◽  
Abdelghani Errehymy ◽  
G. Mustafa ◽  
Youssef Khedif ◽  
Mohammed Daoud

Abstract The main aim of this manuscript is to explore the existence and salient features of spherically symmetric relativistic quark stars in the background of massive Brans-Dicke gravity. The exact solutions to the modified Einstein field equations are derived for specific forms of coupling and scalar field functions by using the equation of state relating to the strange quark matter that stimulates the phenomenological MIT-Bag model as a free Fermi gas of quarks. We use a well-behaved function along with Karmarkar condition for class-one embedding as well as junction conditions to determine the unknown metric tensors. The radii of the strange compact stars viz., PSR J1416-2230, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1820-30, CenX-3, EXO1785-248 are predicted via their observed mass for different values of the massive Brans-Dicke parameters. We explore the influences of mass of scalar field $m_{\phi}$ as well as coupling parameter $\omega_{BD}$ along with bag constant $\mathcal{B}$ on state determinants and perform several tests on the viability and stability of the constructed stellar model. Conclusively, we find that our stellar system is physically viable and stable as it satisfies all the energy conditions as well as necessary stability criteria under the influence of a gravitational scalar field.

Haeun Yum ◽  
Hamin Lim ◽  
Dahae Min ◽  
Chani Kwon ◽  
Jiin Seo ◽  

Many elderly people use hip protectors to prevent hip fractures from sideways falls. These hip protectors absorb or shunt away the energy applied to the greater trochanter. Herein, shear-thickening polymer (STP)-based hip protectors composed of STP and polyurethane foam are studied. The purpose of this study was to identify the main factor that reduces the impact force directly applied to the femoral neck region and to determine the optimal thickness of STP in hip protectors. Seven hip protectors of different thicknesses were prepared, and two sets of free-fall mechanical tests with a low impact energy of 25.1 J and moderate impact energy of 44.1 J were conducted for each hip protector. When the thickness of STP exceeded 8 mm, the resultant peak force tended to plateau under both impact conditions, and the force attenuation capacity decreased even under low impact energy conditions. Thus, a hip protector with a 6 mm or 8 mm STP and 5 mm foam was recommended. The STP was the key factor affecting force attenuation capacity, not the polyurethane foam. However, the foam also played an important role in helping the STP function and improving compliance for users.

M. Koussour ◽  
M. Bennai

In this paper, we present a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-I cosmological model with a viscous bulk fluid in [Formula: see text] gravity where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. The field equations are solved explicitly using the hybrid law of the scale factor, which is related to the average Hubble parameter and gives a time-varying deceleration parameter (DP). We found the deceleration parameter describing two phases in the universe, the early deceleration phase [Formula: see text] and the current acceleration phase [Formula: see text]. We have calculated some physical and geometric properties and their graphs, whether in terms of time or redshift. Note that for our model, the bulk viscous pressure [Formula: see text] is negative and the energy density [Formula: see text] is positive. The energy conditions and the [Formula: see text] analysis for our spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-I model are also discussed.

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