The Universe
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Rachaell Nihalaani

Abstract: As Plato once rightfully said, ‘Music gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination and life to everything.’ Music has always been an important art form, and more so in today’s science-driven world. Music genre classification paves the way for other applications such as music recommender models. Several approaches could be used to classify music genres. In this literature, we aimed to build a machine learning model to classify the genre of an input audio file using 8 machine learning algorithms and determine which algorithm is the best suitable for genre classification. We have obtained an accuracy of 91% using the XGBoost algorithm. Keywords: Machine Learning, Music Genre Classification, Decision Trees, K Nearest Neighbours, Logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, XGBoost

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 42-44
S Mahespriya ◽  
H Vetha Merlin Kumari ◽  
H Nalini Sofia ◽  
T Lakshmi Kantham ◽  
R Meena Kumari

Background: Siddha medicine is an ancient script of medicine has been originated in South India. The concept of the Siddha system is based on fundamental principles of 96 thathuvangal which include five basic elements of the Universe, Udal thadhugal, and Uyir thadhugal etc. The physical health of the human body is maintained by three humors vathm, pitham, kabam which are the basic vital forces of humans. Udaliyal assessment is an essential tool, to diagnose any variation in the three vital forces. This study was to evaluate the body constitution in Uthiravatha Suronitham (Rheumatoid arthritis). This study was conducted in the outpatient department maruthuvam, Ayothidoss pandithar hospital, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai. 50 Uthiravatha Suronitham patients were selected to analyze the body constitution of Uthiravatha suronitham disease. The study details were collected by using the questionnaire in the data collection questionnaire. vathakaba thegi and vathapitha thegi body constitutions were more prone to Uthiravatha suronitham disease. The traits of thega illakanam, can be used for the line of treatment to the Uthiravatha suronitham patients along with dietary habits, behavioural modifications. etc.

Shubham Kala ◽  
Hemwati Nandan ◽  
Prateek Sharma ◽  
Maye Elmardi

Various observations from cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), type Ia supernova and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are strongly suggestive of an accelerated expansion of the universe which can be explained by the presence of mysterious energy known as dark energy. The quintessential matter coupled with gravity minimally is considered one of the possible candidates to represent the presence of such dark energy in our universe. In view of this scenario, we study the geodesic of massless particles as well as massive particles around a (2 + 1)-dimensional BTZ black hole (BH) spacetime surrounded by the quintessence. The effect of parameters involved in the deflection of light by such a BH spacetime is investigated in detail. The results obtained are then compared with a usual non-rotating BTZ BH spacetime.

Universe ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 381
Sourav Roy Chowdhury ◽  
Maxim Khlopov

Magnetars have already been a potential candidate as gravitational wave sources that could be detected by current and future terrestrial as well as ground-based gravitational wave detectors. In this article, we focus on the gravitational wave emission from the distorted rotating neutron stars. The deformation is assumed to be symmetric around an axis that is perpendicular to the rotation axis. The form is applied in the context of a neutron star whose magnetic field has been deformed on its own. By introducing the effects from all magnetars in the Universe, based on various proposed magnetic field configurations, such as poloidal and toroidal, the stochastic gravitational wave background can be generated. We choose to figure out exactly how the observations of the stochastic gravitational wave background should be used to understand much more about physics correlated with the magnetar behavior, based on the restriction on the ellipticity of the magnetar.

Umesh Kumar Sharma ◽  
Vandna Srivastava

Within the framework of quantum gravity and modified entropy-area formalism, the Tsallis holographic dark energy is an effort to peep into a mysterious content of the Universe, the dark energy, to analyze its nature. The Tsallis parameter [Formula: see text] provides the main characteristic of the Tsallis holographic dark energy. Opting the value of Tsallis parameter [Formula: see text], a quintessence scalar field description of the Tsallis holographic dark energy model can be obtained. In this work, we present this quintessential explanation of the Tsallis holographic dark energy with [Formula: see text] and reconstruct the dynamics of the scalar field and the potential of quintessence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 316-330
Y. V. Subba Rao

The proposed hypothesis of ‘Stars in the Origin and Evolution of Species’ is based on the principle underlying in ‘Jyotish’, one of the six Vedāngas and ancillary of most ancient Vedas of Hinduism. The principle of interaction of electromagnetic force with inorganic chemistry available to us in the universe defines life as an emergent property of matter and as the most plausible hypothesis for explaining the extra-terrestrial origin of species. The current hypothesis of evolution explains the critical milestones in the development of advanced life on Earth during the Cambrian explosion and the complexity of life when humans appeared on earth endowed with a brain of extraordinary intellectual capacities and capabilities which is far more complex than the animal brain and its development in stages is also observed as a plausible mechanism in tune with the phases of elements given out by the stars during their life cycles.

Francisco Queiró

Abstract This paper shows that entrepreneurial human capital is a key driver of firm dynamics using administrative panel data on the universe of firms and workers in Portugal. Firms started by more educated entrepreneurs are larger at entry and exhibit higher life cycle growth. Consistent with an effect on growth, the thickness of the right tail of the size distribution increases with entrepreneur schooling. The evidence points to several underlying mechanisms, with technology adoption playing the most important part. I develop and estimate a model of firm dynamics that can parsimoniously account for these findings, and use it to draw aggregate implications. Accounting for the effect of entrepreneurial human capital on firm dynamics can substantially increase aggregate returns to schooling and the fraction of cross-country income differences explained by human and physical capital.

2021 ◽  
Martin Reid Johnson

Abstract The Universe at z = 1089 is treated as an expanding ideal gas. Its internal kinetic energy loss exceeds the amount absorbed by gravity and drives further expansion. A Hubble relation (Hg) is derived and compared to the value found by the ΛCDM model (HΛ) over the range z = 1089 to 0. The results suggest that the adiabatic release of energy from cosmic gas accounts for about half of present-day Universal expansion.

Andrei Khrennikov ◽  
Oded Shor ◽  
Benninger Felix

Following Smolin, we proceed to unification of general relativity and quantum theory by operating solely with events, i.e., without appealing to physical systems and space-time. The universe is modelled as a dendrogram (finite tree) expressing the hierarchic relations between events. This is the observational (epistemic) model; the ontic model is based on p-adic numbers (infinite trees). Hence, we use novel mathematics—not only space-time but even real numbers are not in use. Here, the p-adic space (which is zero dimensional) serves as the base for the holographic image of the universe. In this way our theory relates to p-adic physics; in particular, p-adic string theory and complex disordered systems (p-adic representation of Parisi matrix for spin glasses). Our Dendrogramic-Holographic (DH) theory matches perfectly with the Mach’s principle and Brans-Dicke theory. We found surprising informational interrelation between the fundamental constants, h, c, G, and their DH-analogues, h(D), c(D), G(D). DH-theory is part of Wheeler’s project on the information restructuring of physics. It is also a step towards the Unified Field theory. The universal potential V is nonlocal, but this is relational DH-nonlocality. V can be coupled to the Bohm quantum potential by moving to the real representation. This coupling enhanced the role of the Bohm potential.

Galaxies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 77
Orlando Luongo ◽  
Marco Muccino

Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe and are mainly placed at very large redshifts, up to z≃9. In this short review, we first discuss gamma-ray burst classification and morphological properties. We then report the likely relations between gamma-ray bursts and other astronomical objects, such as black holes, supernovae, neutron stars, etc., discussing in detail gamma-ray burst progenitors. We classify long and short gamma-ray bursts, working out their timescales, and introduce the standard fireball model. Afterwards, we focus on direct applications of gamma-ray bursts to cosmology and underline under which conditions such sources would act as perfect standard candles if correlations between photometric and spectroscopic properties were not jeopardized by the circularity problem. In this respect, we underline how the shortage of low-z gamma-ray bursts prevents anchor gamma-ray bursts with primary distance indicators. Moreover, we analyze in detail the most adopted gamma-ray burst correlations, highlighting their main differences. We therefore show calibration techniques, comparing such treatments with non-calibration scenarios. For completeness, we discuss the physical properties of the correlation scatters and systematics occurring during experimental computations. Finally, we develop the most recent statistical methods, star formation rate, and high-redshift gamma-ray burst excess and show the most recent constraints obtained from experimental analyses.

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