Model averaging for linear mixed models via augmented Lagrangian

2022 ◽  
Vol 167 ◽  
pp. 107351
René-Marcel Kruse ◽  
Alexander Silbersdorff ◽  
Benjamin Säfken
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 3274
Suzanne Maas ◽  
Paraskevas Nikolaou ◽  
Maria Attard ◽  
Loukas Dimitriou

Bicycle sharing systems (BSSs) have been implemented in cities worldwide in an attempt to promote cycling. Despite exhibiting characteristics considered to be barriers to cycling, such as hot summers, hilliness and car-oriented infrastructure, Southern European island cities and tourist destinations Limassol (Cyprus), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) and the Valletta conurbation (Malta) are all experiencing the implementation of BSSs and policies to promote cycling. In this study, a year of trip data and secondary datasets are used to analyze dock-based BSS usage in the three case-study cities. How land use, socio-economic, network and temporal factors influence BSS use at station locations, both as an origin and as a destination, was examined using bivariate correlation analysis and through the development of linear mixed models for each case study. Bivariate correlations showed significant positive associations with the number of cafes and restaurants, vicinity to the beach or promenade and the percentage of foreign population at the BSS station locations in all cities. A positive relation with cycling infrastructure was evident in Limassol and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, but not in Malta, as no cycling infrastructure is present in the island’s conurbation, where the BSS is primarily operational. Elevation had a negative association with BSS use in all three cities. In Limassol and Malta, where seasonality in weather patterns is strongest, a negative effect of rainfall and a positive effect of higher temperature were observed. Although there was a positive association between BSS use and the number of visiting tourists in Limassol and Malta, this is predominantly explained through the multi-collinearity with weather factors rather than by intensive use of the BSS by tourists. The linear mixed models showed more fine-grained results and explained differences in BSS use at stations, including differences for station use as an origin and as a destination. The insights from the correlation analysis and linear mixed models can be used to inform policies promoting cycling and BSS use and support sustainable mobility policies in the case-study cities and cities with similar characteristics.

2019 ◽  
Vol 38 (30) ◽  
pp. 5603-5622 ◽  
Bernard G. Francq ◽  
Dan Lin ◽  
Walter Hoyer

Kevin P. Josey ◽  
Brandy M. Ringham ◽  
Anna E. Barón ◽  
Margaret Schenkman ◽  
Katherine A. Sauder ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 096228022110175
Jan P Burgard ◽  
Joscha Krause ◽  
Ralf Münnich ◽  
Domingo Morales

Obesity is considered to be one of the primary health risks in modern industrialized societies. Estimating the evolution of its prevalence over time is an essential element of public health reporting. This requires the application of suitable statistical methods on epidemiologic data with substantial local detail. Generalized linear-mixed models with medical treatment records as covariates mark a powerful combination for this purpose. However, the task is methodologically challenging. Disease frequencies are subject to both regional and temporal heterogeneity. Medical treatment records often show strong internal correlation due to diagnosis-related grouping. This frequently causes excessive variance in model parameter estimation due to rank-deficiency problems. Further, generalized linear-mixed models are often estimated via approximate inference methods as their likelihood functions do not have closed forms. These problems combined lead to unacceptable uncertainty in prevalence estimates over time. We propose an l2-penalized temporal logit-mixed model to solve these issues. We derive empirical best predictors and present a parametric bootstrap to estimate their mean-squared errors. A novel penalized maximum approximate likelihood algorithm for model parameter estimation is stated. With this new methodology, the regional obesity prevalence in Germany from 2009 to 2012 is estimated. We find that the national prevalence ranges between 15 and 16%, with significant regional clustering in eastern Germany.

2015 ◽  
Dário Ferreira ◽  
Sandra S. Ferreira ◽  
Célia Nunes ◽  
João T. Mexia

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