linear mixed models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 167 ◽  
pp. 107351
René-Marcel Kruse ◽  
Alexander Silbersdorff ◽  
Benjamin Säfken

2022 ◽  
Vol 167 ◽  
pp. 107350
David Rügamer ◽  
Philipp F.M. Baumann ◽  
Sonja Greven

Osval Antonio Montesinos López ◽  
Abelardo Montesinos López ◽  
Jose Crossa

AbstractThe linear mixed model framework is explained in detail in this chapter. We explore three methods of parameter estimation (maximum likelihood, EM algorithm, and REML) and illustrate how genomic-enabled predictions are performed under this framework. We illustrate the use of linear mixed models by using the predictor several components such as environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interaction. Also, the linear mixed model is illustrated under a multi-trait framework that is important in the prediction performance when the degree of correlation between traits is moderate or large. We illustrate the use of single-trait and multi-trait linear mixed models and provide the R codes for performing the analyses.

Yassine OU LARBİ ◽  
Rachid El HALİMİ ◽  
Abdelhadi AKHARİF ◽  

Melike YİĞİT ◽  
Nesrin GÜLER ◽  

2021 ◽  
Tianjing Zhao ◽  
Jian Zeng ◽  
Hao Cheng

ABSTRACTWith the growing amount and diversity of intermediate omics data complementary to genomics (e.g., DNA methylation, gene expression, and protein abundance), there is a need to develop methods to incorporate intermediate omics data into conventional genomic evaluation. The omics data helps decode the multiple layers of regulation from genotypes to phenotypes, thus forms a connected multi-layer network naturally. We developed a new method named NN-LMM to model the multiple layers of regulation from genotypes to intermediate omics features, then to phenotypes, by extending conventional linear mixed models (“LMM”) to multi-layer artificial neural networks (“NN”). NN-LMM incorporates intermediate omics features by adding middle layers between genotypes and phenotypes. Linear mixed models (e.g., pedigree-based BLUP, GBLUP, Bayesian Alphabet, single-step GBLUP, or single-step Bayesian Alphabet) can be used to sample marker effects or genetic values on intermediate omics features, and activation functions in neural networks are used to capture the nonlinear relationships between intermediate omics features and phenotypes. NN-LMM had significantly better prediction performance than the recently proposed single-step approach for genomic prediction with intermediate omics data. Compared to the single-step approach, NN-LMM can handle various patterns of missing omics measures, and allows nonlinear relationships between intermediate omics features and phenotypes. NN-LMM has been implemented in an open-source package called “JWAS”.

Agnieszka Szarkowska ◽  
Breno Silva ◽  
David Orrego-Carmona

Abstract How much time do viewers spend reading subtitles and does it depend on the subtitle speed? By posing these questions, in this paper we re-analyse previous data to address this issue while promoting two methodological advancements in eye-tracking audiovisual research: (1) the use of proportional reading time (PRT) as a metric of time spent on subtitle reading and (2) the analysis of data via linear mixed models (LMMs). We tested 19 Polish L1 viewers with advanced English proficiency watching two clips with English soundtrack with Polish subtitles. First, we compared PRT at two different subtitle speeds: 12 characters per second (cps) and 20 cps. Then, we used actual subtitle speed rates to better understand the speed-PRT relationship. The results showed a significantly higher PRT for 20 cps compared to 12 cps, with the models predicting a PRT of 45.24% at 20 cps. We have also found strong evidence of the advantage of LMMs over more commonly used statistical techniques.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 645-645
Nicholas Resciniti ◽  
Alexander McLain ◽  
Anwar Merchant ◽  
Daniela Friedman ◽  
Matthew Lohman

Abstract Recent research has examined how the microbiome may influence cognitive outcomes; however, there is a paucity of research understanding how medication associated with dysbiosis may be associated with cognitive changes. This study used data from the Health and Retirement Study and the Prescription Drug Study subset for adults 51 and older (n=3,898). Continuous (0-27) and categorical (cognitively normal=12-27; cognitive impairment=7-11; and dementia=0-6) cognitive outcomes were used. Prescriptions utilized were proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihistamines, and a summed dose-response measure. Linear mixed models (LMM) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used for continuous and binary outcomes. For the LMM model, the main effect for those taking one medication was insignificant; however, the interaction with time showed a significant decrease over time (β: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14, 0.01). The mean cognitive score was lower for those taking two or more medications (β: -1.48; 95% CI: -2.70, -0.25), although the interaction with time was insignificant. GLMM results showed those taking two or medications had odds that are 612% larger (odds ratio (OR): 7.12; 95% CI: 3.03, 16.71) of going from cognitively healthy to dementia but the interaction with time showed decreased odds over time (OR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.97). For cognitive impairment, those who took two or more medications had odds that were 45% larger (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.00) of going from cognitively healthy to cognitively impaired. This study indicated a dose-response aspect to taking medications on cognitive outcomes.

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