correlation analysis
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
X. Wu ◽  
G. Zhong ◽  
H. Wang ◽  
J. Zhu

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Mohammad Ehsan Shahmi Chowdhury ◽  
Chowdhury Farhan Ahmed ◽  
Carson K. Leung

Nowadays graphical datasets are having a vast amount of applications. As a result, graph mining—mining graph datasets to extract frequent subgraphs—has proven to be crucial in numerous aspects. It is important to perform correlation analysis among the subparts (i.e., elements) of the frequent subgraphs generated using graph mining to observe interesting information. However, the majority of existing works focuses on complexities in dealing with graphical structures, and not much work aims to perform correlation analysis. For instance, a previous work realized in this regard, operated with a very naive raw approach to fulfill the objective, but dealt only on a small subset of the problem. Hence, in this article, a new measure is proposed to aid in the analysis for large subgraphs, mined from various types of graph transactions in the dataset. These subgraphs are immense in terms of their structural composition, and thus parallel the entire set of graphs in real-world. A complete framework for discovering the relations among parts of a frequent subgraph is proposed using our new method. Evaluation results show the usefulness and accuracy of the newly defined measure on real-life graphical datasets.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Zhu ◽  
Jin Tao ◽  
Zhen Dai ◽  
Yan Tan ◽  
Li Jiang ◽  
...  

To investigate literature-based evidence regarding progression-free survival (PFS) as an early efficacy endpoint in patients with resectable esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy, this study identified large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with strict quality control. Twenty-four RCTs involving 7,514 patients were included. Trial-level correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between PFS hazard ratio (HR) and overall survival (OS) HR, Δ median PFS and Δ median OS. Correlation analysis at the neoadjuvant treatment arm level was performed between 1- to 5-year PFS and 5-year OS, median PFS and median OS. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients treated with standard neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). The correlation was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient r in weighted linear regression, with weight equal to patient size. In trial-level correlation, PFS were strongly associated with OS HR (r, 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.97]) and Δ median survival (r, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.54-0.96]). In neoadjuvant treatment arms, there was a strong correlation between 1 to 5-year PFS rates and 5-year OS (r, 0.83-0.95), and median PFS and median OS (r, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99]). NCRT subgroup analysis demonstrated acceptable consistency. In conclusion, we recommend PFS as an early efficacy endpoint in resected esophageal or GEJ cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lu Xia ◽  
Lu Liu ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Jing Ding ◽  
Xin Wang

PurposeThis study aimed to analyse the correlation between the pyroptosis pathway and epilepsy using bioinformatics analysis technology. We analyzed the expression of gasdermin D (GSDMD) and gasdermin E (GSDME), the key molecules of pyroptosis, in kainic acid-induced epileptic mice.MethodsWeighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to construct a signed co-expression network from expression data to screen gene sets closely related to epilepsy. The correlation between the module and epilepsy was verified through module conservative analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation analysis, and correlation analysis with known epilepsy genes. We obtained currently recognized pyroptosis-related molecules through literature review, and correlation analysis was used to evaluate their correlation with epilepsy. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis was used to analyse expression changes of pyroptosis-related molecules at the transcriptome level, compared to the sham group. We subsequently established a kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) model in mice and validated the mRNA and protein expression of GSDMD and GSDME, the key molecules of pyroptosis, by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting (WB).ResultsUsing WGCNA, module conservative analysis, and correlation analysis with known epilepsy genes, we screened out a module (a gene set of interest) closely related to epilepsy that was prominently enriched in immune and inflammatory-related biological processes. Correlation analysis results suggest that pyroptosis-related molecules are closely related to this module, but have no obvious correlation with others. DEG analysis of molecules associated with pyroptosis suggests that most of the pyroptosis-related molecules had significantly increased expression after SE, such as IL1b, Casp1, Casp4, Pycard, Gsdmd, Nlrp3, Aim2, Mefv, Tlr2, Tlr3, and Tlr4. qRT-PCR and WB analysis confirmed that the mRNA and protein levels of GSDMD in the mouse hippocampus were significantly upregulated after SE. The mRNA expression of GSDME was not different between the epilepsy group and sham group. However, the WB results showed that the expression of full-length GSDME was decreased and GSDME-N-terminus were significantly increased after SE.ConclusionsOur study highlights that the pyroptosis pathway may be closely related to epilepsy. GSDMD and GSDME, the key executive molecules of pyroptosis, will help to understand the pathogenesis of epilepsy and aid in discovering new targets for anti-epileptic drug treatments.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiangli Lu ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Chenyan Wu ◽  
Chengbiao Chu ◽  
Chris Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background UPK2 exhibits excellent specificity for urothelial carcinoma (UC). UPK2 evaluation can be useful in making the correct diagnosis of UC. However, UPK2 detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has relatively low sensitivity. This paper aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of RNAscope and IHC for evaluation of the UPK2 status in UC. Methods Tissue blocks from 127 conventional bladder UCs, 45 variant bladder UCs, 24 upper tract UCs and 23 metastatic UCs were selected for this study. IHC and RNAscope were used to detect the UPK2 status in UCs. Then, comparisons of the two methods were undertaken. Results There was no significant difference between RNAscope and IHC for the evaluation of the UPK2 positivity rate in UC (68.0% vs. 62.6%, P = 0.141). Correlation analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation for detection of UPK2: RNAscope vs. IHC (P < 0.001, R = 0.441). Our results showed a trend toward a higher positive UPK2 rate detected by RNAscope (53.3%) than by IHC (35.6%) in variant bladder UCs. Disappointingly, the P value did not indicate a significant difference (P = 0.057). Conclusions RNAscope for UPK2 appeared to perform similarly to IHC, with a marginally higher positive rate, suggesting it could be used as an alternative or adjunct to UPK2 IHC.


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