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Published By Mdpi Ag

2071-1050
Updated Tuesday, 18 January 2022

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 915
Author(s):  
Klaudia Nowicka

All tangible and intangible elements of cultural heritage that the past has conceded to local communities create unique landscapes shaped by tightly connected anthropogenic and natural factors. This heritage is a keystone of local identity which plays a significant role in politics, economic development, society and world view. In some regions, such as in the Vistula delta in Poland, the cultural heritage has been created by consecutive groups of settlers who represented different values, beliefs and ways of life. On the one hand, such a rich heritage may be perceived as a valuable asset and become a landmark or tourism product of a region. On the other hand, it may be perceived as alien and unwanted by contemporary residents, especially when they are not descendants of the former communities. The main objective of the study presented herein is to analyse how the residents of the Vistula delta region, called Żuławy Wiślane, perceive and use cultural heritage of the Mennonites, representing the most extraordinary group of settlers who used to live in the region. The analysis covers original data gathered during survey research in the period of 2017–2018 under the project Miniatura I “Perception and usage of cultural heritage of the Vistula delta Mennonites” financed by the National Science Centre in Poland.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 908
Author(s):  
Elyakim Ben-Hakoun ◽  
Eddy Van De Voorde ◽  
Yoram Shiftan

Located in the Middle East, Haifa Port serves both local and international trade interests (from Asia, Europe, America, Africa, etc.). Due to its strategic location, the port is part of the Belt and Road initiative. This research investigates Haifa Port’s emissions contribution to the existing daily emission inventory level in the area. This research is based on a developed full bottom-up model framework that looks at the single vessel daily voyage through its port call stages. The main data sources for vessel movements used in this research are the Israel Navy’s movements log and the Israel Administration of Shipping and Ports’ (ASP) operational vessel movements and cargo log. The Fuel Consumption (FC) data and Sulfur Content (SC) levels are based on official Israel ASP survey data. The observation years in this research are 2010–2018, with a focus on the Ocean-Going Vessel (OGV) type only. The results show that the vessel fleet calling at Israel ports mainly comprises vessels that have a lower engine tier grade (i.e., Tier 0 and 1), which is considered a heavy contributor to nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution. The study recommends an additional cost charged (selective tariff) to reflect the external social cost linked to the single vessel air pollution combined with supportive technological infrastructure and economic incentive tools (e.g., electric subsidy) to attract or influence vessel owners to assign vessels equipped with new engine tier grades for calls at Israeli ports.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 909
Author(s):  
Amin Alizadeh

(1) Although numerous articles have been published to address the drivers or barriers of corporate social responsibility (CSR), some parts of the world have received less attention. In this study, I reviewed the literature from 2010 to 2021 to identify drivers and barriers of CSR in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and compare them with the findings in Western countries. (2) Methods: For this study, I used a structured literature review method. By setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 28 articles remained from the selected database. (3) Results: The findings revealed that some CSR drivers, such as leadership styles, profitability, reputation, moral commitment, and environmental conservation, are common in both regions. There are also some differences between CSR drivers, for example, religious beliefs, low concentration of ownership, and company characteristics are some of the drivers in the MENA region. Maintaining social license to operate, and avoiding the risks of community opposition, pressure from the government, and consumer demand tend to be more important in Western countries. Common barriers in both regions are lack of financial resources, cost, lack of CSR knowledge and awareness, and ownership concentration. This review also highlighted that lack of law enforcement, lack of stakeholder communication, lack of management commitment, lack of interests, corruption, and financial debts are some of the barriers of CSR addressed in the MENA region, whereas cost/benefit ratio, lack of customer interest, and lack of scientific frameworks are special barriers in Western countries. (4) Conclusions: Although researchers in Western countries have more focus on the energy sector, there is a lack of research about the drivers and barriers of CSR in the MENA region in several industries, including oil and gas.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 914
Author(s):  
Heba Elbasiouny ◽  
Hassan El-Ramady ◽  
Fathy Elbehiry ◽  
Vishnu D. Rajput ◽  
Tatiana Minkina ◽  
...  

The climate is one of the key elements impacting several cycles connected to soil and plant systems, as well as plant production, soil quality, and environmental quality. Due to heightened human activity, the rate of CO2 is rising in the atmosphere. Changing climatic conditions (such as temperature, CO2, and precipitation) influence plant nutrition in a range of ways, comprising mineralization, decomposition, leaching, and losing nutrients in the soil. Soil carbon sequestration plays an essential function—not only in climate change mitigation but also in plant nutrient accessibility and soil fertility. As a result, there is a significant interest globally in soil carbon capture from atmospheric CO2 and sequestration in the soil via plants. Adopting effective management methods and increasing soil carbon inputs over outputs will consequently play a crucial role in soil carbon sequestration (SCseq) and plant nutrition. As a result, boosting agricultural yield is necessary for food security, notoriously in developing countries. Several unanswered problems remain regarding climate change and its impacts on plant nutrition and global food output, which will be elucidated over time. This review provides several remarkable pieces of information about the influence of changing climatic variables on plant nutrients (availability and uptake). Additionally, it addresses the effect of soil carbon sequestration, as one of climate change mitigations, on plant nutrition and how relevant management practices can positively influence this.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 911
Author(s):  
Ilenia Zennaro ◽  
Serena Finco ◽  
Martina Calzavara ◽  
Alessandro Persona

E-commerce is always more diffused as a selling channel around the whole world market, and its importance has increased and continues to increase with the COVID-19 pandemic emergency. It provides enterprises a lot of opportunities, as the importance of physical stores to sell goods is bypassed. However, it has also changed the role of logistics in the supply chain. For this reason, this work aims to identify the main logistics research areas related to e-commerce implementation and the factors and key performance indicators, which should be taken into account for each logistics research area, with particular attention to sustainable aspects. For doing this, a structured and comprehensive literature analysis is carried out. Keywords associated with e-commerce and logistics areas are matched to identify the most interesting works related to its implementation. From the analysis, five main research areas are identified: Supply Chain Network Design (SCND); Outbound Logistics (OL); Reverse Logistics (RL); Warehousing (WR); and IT and data management (E-IT). For each area, key factors, strategies and performance indicators have been identified. Finally, a methodological framework that summarizes the results of the analysis is presented; this is a useful tool for managers to implement or expand their e-commerce business. Many works are focused on one research area, carrying out critical factors, models, and methods to implement that topic. Instead, the methodological framework presented here summarizes multiple research areas from a logistic point of view, identifying for each one input and output variables and how they influence each other.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 913
Author(s):  
Debasis Mohanty ◽  
Divya Anand ◽  
Hani Moaiteq Aljahdali ◽  
Santos Gracia Villar

The highly fragmented blockchain and cryptocurrency ecosystem necessitates interoperability mechanisms as a requirement for blockchain-technology acceptance. The immediate implication of interchain interoperability is automatic swapping between cryptocurrencies. We performed a systematic review of the existing literature on Blockchain interoperability and atomic cross-chain transactions. We investigated different blockchain interoperability approaches, including industrial solutions, categorized them and identified the key mechanisms used, and list several example projects for each category. We focused on the atomic transactions between blockchain, a process also known as atomic swap. Furthermore, we studied recent implementations along with architectural approaches for atomic swap and deduced research issues and challenges in cross-chain interoperability and atomic swap. Atomic swap can instantly transfer tokens and significantly reduce the associated costs without using any centralized authority, and thus facilitates the development of a sustainable payment system for wider financial inclusion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 910
Author(s):  
Gustavo Lopes dos Santos ◽  
Rosário Macário ◽  
Marie Delaplace ◽  
Stefano Di Vita

Due to public opposition against the unsustainability of hosting the Olympic Games, the International Olympic Committee adopted Olympic Agenda 2020 to adjust the event requirements to address modern society’s sustainability concerns. Since its implementation, the Agenda has driven important changes regarding the planning and organization of the Olympics, including the possibility of regions being hosts. This allows the sprawl of Olympic venues over larger territories, theoretically facilitating the alignment of event requirements with the needs of the intensively growing contemporary urban areas. However, the larger the host territory, the more complex becomes its mobility planning, as transport requirements for participants still have to be fulfilled, and the host populations still expect to inherit benefits from any investments made. The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss new challenges that such modifications bring for mega-event mobility planning. First, based on the academic literature of case studies of previous Olympic cities, a theoretical framework to systematize the mobility problem at the Olympic Games is proposed for further validation, identifying the dimensions of the related knowledge frames. Second, the mobility planning for the case study of the first ever Olympic region—the Milan–Cortina 2026 Winter Games—is described. Using this case study, the proposed framework is then extrapolated for cases of Olympic regions in order to identify any shifts in the paradigm of mobility planning when increasing the spatial scale of Olympic hosts. Conclusions indicate that, if properly addressed, unsustainability might be mitigated in Olympic regions, but mega-event planners will have to consider new issues affecting host communities and event stakeholders.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 912
Author(s):  
Wenhan Ren ◽  
Jing Ni ◽  
Yu Chen

China’s management of marine ecological environments has experienced a development process that has gone from weak to strong. However, whether there are problems such as lack of systems, invalid systems, and system conflicts in the current management of marine ecological environments, and how to conduct collaborative governance among various complex subjects, remain to be answered. This paper first summarizes how China’s marine ecological environment management policy has evolved, which can be divided into five stages: the foundation stage (1949–1980), the initial establishment stage (1981–1995), the steady advancement stage (1996–2005), the deepening adjustment stage (2006–2010), and the strategic development stage (2011–present), and analyzes its characteristics at different stages. Then, this paper further explores the inherent dilemmas in the Chinese marine ecological environment management system. Finally, combined with the practical experience of marine ecological environment management in developed countries, this paper fully considers the division of responsibilities and mutual checks and balances of different subjects, flexibly configures various policy tools, and explores the mechanism of collaborative governance of marine ecological environment from the levels of government, market, the public and social organizations, so as to gradually improve the modern marine ecological environment management system and provide a reference for the government’s governance activities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 904
Author(s):  
William O. Taylor ◽  
Peter L. Watson ◽  
Diego Cerrai ◽  
Emmanouil Anagnostou

This paper develops a statistical framework to analyze the effectiveness of vegetation management at reducing power outages during storms of varying severity levels. The framework was applied on the Eversource Energy distribution grid in Connecticut, USA based on 173 rain and wind events from 2005–2020, including Hurricane Irene, Hurricane Sandy, and Tropical Storm Isaias. The data were binned by storm severity (high/low) and vegetation management levels, where a maximum applicable length of vegetation management for each circuit was determined, and the data were divided into four bins based on the actual length of vegetation management performed divided by the maximum applicable value (0–25%, 25–50%, 50–75%, and 75–100%). Then, weather and overhead line length normalized outage statistics were taken for each group. The statistics were used to determine the effectiveness of vegetation management and its dependence on storm severity. The results demonstrate a higher reduction in damages for lower-severity storms, with a reduction in normalized outages between 45.8% and 63.8%. For high-severity events, there is a large increase in effectiveness between the highest level of vegetation management and the two lower levels, with 75–100% vegetation management leading to a 37.3% reduction in trouble spots. Yet, when evaluating system reliability, it is important to look at all storms combined, and the results of this study provide useful information on total annual trouble spots and allow for analysis of how various vegetation management scenarios would impact trouble spots in the electric grid. This framework can also be used to better understand how more rigorous vegetation management standards (applying ETT) help reduce outages at an individual event level. In future work, a similar framework may be used to evaluate other resilience improvements.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 899
Author(s):  
Zaida Troya ◽  
Rafael Esteban ◽  
Enrique Herrera-Viedma ◽  
Antonio Peña-García

Nuclear facilities are a main milestone in the long way to sustainable energy. Beyond the well-known fission centrals, the necessity of cleaner, more efficient and almost unlimited energy reducing waste to almost zero is a major challenge in the next decades. This is the case with nuclear fusion. Different experimental installations to definitively control this nuclear power are proliferating in different countries. However, citizens in the surroundings of cities and villages where these installations are going to be settled are frequently reluctant because of doubts about the expected benefits and the potential hazards. In this framework, knowing the opinion of people and their perception of experimental fusion facilities is essential for researchers, administrations and rulemaking bodies planning future fusion plants. This is the case for IFMIF-DONES, a neutron irradiation facility to determine the most suitable materials for the future fusion reactors. The construction of this installation is starting in Escúzar (Granada, Spain), and this work presents a large survey among 311 people living or working in the village. Their perception, fears, hopes and other variables are analyzed, and the conclusions for future installations and their impact on the energy policy are presented.


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