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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Yuchen Song ◽  
Michael M Barger ◽  
Kristen L. Bub

Parents’ educational beliefs are thought to guide children’s early development in school. The present study explored the association between parent’s growth mindset and elementary school-aged children’s self-reported persistence, as well as teacher-reported reading and math skills in 102 dyads. Findings showed that children self-reported greater persistence when their parents held more growth mindset. Teachers also rated students as more capable readers when their parents endorsed a growth, rather than fixed, mindset. Additional analysis indicated that although the effect of parents’ growth mindset on children’s reading skills became non-significant once SES was controlled, the positive association between parents’ mindset and children’s persistence was unaffected by SES. Our study provides evidence about the intergenerational association of motivational tendencies at an early age, even when children may not be able to develop a coherent system of motivational beliefs of their own.

João Martins ◽  
Adilson Marques ◽  
Élvio Rúbio Gouveia ◽  
Francisco Carvalho ◽  
Hugo Sarmento ◽  

The present study sought to examine the associations between participation in physical education (PE) classes and a range of health-related behaviours among adolescents. Secondary analysis of self-reported data from the Global Student Health Survey, collected between 2010 and 2017 from 222,121 adolescents (N = 117,914 girls; 49.0%; aged 13–17 years) from 67 countries and five world regions, was carried out. Participation in PE classes (0, 1–2, ≥3 days/week) was the independent variable. Physical activity (PA); sedentary behaviour (SB); active travel to school; fruit, vegetables, and alcohol consumption; and smoking; as well as adopting ≥5 of these healthy behaviours; were the dependent variables. Complex samples logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between participation in PE classes and health-related behaviours. The results revealed that 18.2% of adolescents did not take part in PE classes. A total of 56.7% and 25.1% of adolescents reported participating in PE classes on 1–2 and ≥3 days/week, respectively. Only 26.8% of adolescents adopted ≥5 healthy behaviours. Participation in PE classes was positively associated with PA, active travel, fruit consumption, and vegetable consumption (only for ≥3 days/week), but was negatively associated with meeting SB recommendations, and with not smoking (only for girls and ≥3 days/week). Overall, PE participation was positively associated with adopting ≥5 healthy behaviours, with favourable results found for those who attended more PE classes. The findings revealed a positive association between participation in PE classes and a range of health-related behaviours among adolescents. This suggests that, worldwide, quality PE should be delivered at least 3 days per week up to daily to promote healthy lifestyles among adolescents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 1
Edward Alabie Borteye ◽  
Williams Kwasi Peprah

The study confirms the debate on whether stock market development correlates to economic growth. The dimensions used for the stock market development consisted of market liquidity, size, and capitalization. Economic growth was represented by the real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate. Based on secondary data obtained from the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) and Ghana Statistical Service from 2014 to 2018, a correlational research design was adopted to analyze the data with SPSS 20v by using bivariate and regression. The study found that there is a high positive relationship between market liquidity and economic growth, a moderate negative relationship between market size and economic growth, and a moderate positive relationship between market capitalization and economic growth. Also, the stock market development of market liquidity, size, and capitalization predict 95.7 percent of economic growth. The study summarized that there is a high positive association between stock market development and economic growth as a confirmatory revelation, but all the relationship results were not statistically significant. The result points to the casualty of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth. The study recommends that more firms must be encouraged to be listed on GSE to enhance economic growth in Ghana.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 343
Shota Matsufuji ◽  
Tetsuo Shoji ◽  
Suhye Lee ◽  
Masao Yamaguchi ◽  
Mari Nishimura ◽  

Carnitine deficiency is prevalent in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and it could result in lowered muscle strength. So far, the effect of treatment with levocarnitine on lower limb muscle strength has not been well described. This observational study examined the association between treatment with levocarnitine with the change in knee extensor strength (KES) in hemodialysis patients. Eligible patients were selected from the participants enrolled in a prospective cohort study for whom muscle strength was measured annually. We identified 104 eligible patients for this analysis. During the one-year period between 2014 to 2015, 67 patients were treated with intravenous levocarnitine (1000 mg per shot, thrice weekly), whereas 37 patients were not. The change in KES was significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the carnitine group [0.02 (0.01–0.04) kgf/kg] as compared to the non-carnitine group [−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.01) kgf/kg]. Multivariable-adjusted regression analysis showed the positive association between the change in KES and the treatment with levocarnitine remained significant after adjustment for the baseline KES and other potential confounders. Thus, treatment with intravenous levocarnitine was independently and positively associated with the change in KES among hemodialysis patients. Further clinical trials are needed to provide more solid evidence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ranjana Pal ◽  
Anshu Panwar ◽  
Surendra Prakash Goyal ◽  
Sambandam Sathyakumar

The woolly wolf Canis lupus chanco is increasingly being accepted as a unique taxon that needs immediate protection and management; however, information on its ecology remains limited across its range. We used camera trapping data set of 4 years (2015–2019) to investigate seasonal activity patterns and space use and assessed woolly wolf food habits in the Gangotri National Park, western Himalaya, India. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the distribution of the wolf about prey, seasonal livestock grazing, human presence, habitat, and seasons. We observed a positive association with elevation and a negative response to an increase in ruggedness. The capture of wolves increased in winters, indicating a possible effect of snow on the ranging pattern. Spatial avoidance to anthropogenic pressure was not evident in our study; however, temporal avoidance was observed. The activity pattern of the wolf varied among seasons. Wolves were mostly active in the morning and late evening hours in summer and showed a diurnal activity pattern in winter. A less diverse diet was observed where the mean percentage frequency of occurrence and relative biomass was highest for bharal, followed by livestock. Himalayan marmot Marmota himalayana, birds, and rodents also form minor constituents to the diet. Synthesizing all three factors (space, diet, and activity), it may be stated that the wolf presence in the region is influenced by both wild prey availability and seasonality. Therefore, conservation of woolly wolves would require securing a vast landscape with optimal wild prey.

Antonina Luca ◽  
Roberto Monastero ◽  
Calogero Edoardo Cicero ◽  
Roberta Baschi ◽  
Giulia Donzuso ◽  

AbstractThe association between dyslipidemia and cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients still needs to be clarified. Aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of possible associations between serum lipids fractions and executive dysfunction also exploring the sex-specific contribute of lipids level on cognition. Patients from the PACOS cohort, who underwent a complete serum lipid profile measures (total cholesterol-TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL and triglycerides-TG) were selected. Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program were used to classify normal/abnormal lipid fractions. Executive functioning was assessed with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between lipids fractions and FAB score. Correlations between lipids fractions and FAB score were explored. Sex-stratified analysis was performed. Three hundred and forty-eight PD patients (148 women; age 66.5 ± 9.5 years; disease duration 3.9 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled. Women presented significantly higher TC, LDL and HDL than men. In the whole sample, any association between lipid profile measures and FAB score was found. Among women, a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia and FAB score under cutoff was found (OR 3.4; 95%CI 1.29–9.03; p value 0.013). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the FAB score and triglyceride serum levels (r = − 0.226; p value 0.005). Differently, among men, a statistically significant negative association between hypercholesterolemia and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.17–0.84; p value 0.018) and between high LDL levels and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.18–0.90; p value 0.027) were found. Our data suggest a sex-specific different role of lipids in executive functioning.

Nicole C Soal ◽  
Martin H A Coetzee ◽  
Magriet A van der Nest ◽  
Almuth Hammerbacher ◽  
Brenda D Wingfield

Abstract Fungal species of the Ceratocystidaceae grow on their host plants using a variety of different lifestyles, from saprophytic to highly pathogenic. Although many genomes of fungi in the Ceratocystidaceae are publicly available, it is not known how the genes that encode catechol dioxygenases (CDOs), enzymes involved in the degradation of phenolic plant defence compounds, differ among members of the Ceratocystidaceae. The aim of this study was therefore to identify and characterize the genes encoding CDOs in the genomes of Ceratocystidaceae representatives. We found that genes encoding CDOs are more abundant in pathogenic necrotrophic species of the Ceratocystidaceae and less abundant in saprophytic species. The loss of the CDO genes and the associated 3-oxoadipate catabolic pathway appears to have occurred in a lineage-specific manner. Taken together, this study revealed a positive association between CDO gene copy number and fungal lifestyle in Ceratocystidaceae representatives.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 44
Guillermo Droppelmann ◽  
Felipe Feijoo ◽  
Cristobal Greene ◽  
Manuel Tello ◽  
Julio Rosales ◽  

Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is prevalent in the upper extremity, with various therapeutic options. Understanding the types and the relations between the radiological tendon features would help to develop more specific treatments. This study reviewed ultrasound exams of LET to investigate the types of degenerative findings and the relationships between them in one of the most prominent sports medicine clinics in Latin America. Methods: A retrospective study was performed. We evaluated 4335 ultrasonographic exams with LET from 2017 and 2018. Five principal degenerative ultrasound criteria with subtypes were selected: hypoechogenicity, neovascularity, calcification, enthesopathy, and intrasubstance tear. A multiple linear regression model was conducted to explore the association between the findings, sex, and age. Results: Overall, 4324 ultrasound exams were analyzed; 2607 (60.29%) were males. Multiple degenerative tendon findings were found in adults (≥18 years) with LET. Hypoechogenicity (67.77%) and neovascularity (37.8%) were the most frequent. The mean length of a tendon tear in both sexes was 4.44 (± 2.81) millimeters. Mild hypoechogenicity (P < .001), and depth intrasubstance tear (P < .01) were statistically significant between them. Severe hypoechogenicity was associated with an increase in all tendon tear dimensions for length 1.37 ([95% Confidence interval (CI), 0.57, 2.17]; P < .001), for width 1.10 ([95% CI, 0.33, 1.87]; P < .01) and for depth 1.64 ([95% CI, 0.40, 2.88]; P < .01). Additional findings associated with an increase in the length dimension were 0.42 associated with focal neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.19, 0.65]; P < .001), and 0.71 associated with multiple neovascularity ([95% CI, 0.27, 1.15]; P < .01). Conclusions: Hypoechogenicity and neovascularity findings presented a positive association with the size of tendon tear in patients with LET. This study reaffirms the increased predominance of tendon tear during the 4th to 6th decades of life.

2022 ◽  
Iroshani Kodikara ◽  
Buddhi Anjani Galabada ◽  
Aruni Manjula Kurupparachchi

Abstract Background/ objectivesThe severity of Covid-19 pneumonia has shown a positive association with co-existing risk factors. However, the exact nature of lung involvement in high-risk Covid-19 patients is yet to be resolved. Therefore, we evaluated the CXR features, temporal progression, and the factors associated with CXR severity in high-risk patients.MethodsChest X-rays (n=289) of Covid-19 infected high-risk adults (n=228) treated at the Base Hospital Homagama were evaluated to record CXR features, their temporal progression, CXR severity score and the patient outcomes. ResultsThe studies patients (48.2% men) were in mean age(SD) of 59(15) years. The most frequent CXR features were patchy ground-glass opacities (49%; GG) and patchy consolidations (42%; CON). They showed bilateral (100%) involvement, superoinferior gradient (100%) and diffuse (27%), peripheral (18%) or perihilar (10%) distribution. CON was the predominant opacity among the non-survivors and GG among the survivors (χ2=14.73; p=0.001). Right lung predominant (28%) asymmetrical lung involvement was more frequent than bilateral symmetrical (16%) or left lung predominance (7%). Progression into fatal disease was significantly higher when the lung involvement is asymmetrical: right predominance: ODDs:0.502; p=0.023; left predominance: ODDs:0.268; p=0.002. The CXRs were frequently normal in early (66%) and progressive (56%; χ2=36.64; p<0.001) stages than in peak or resolving stages. The predictors of CXR severity included age (β:0.140; 95% CI:0.041–0.233; p=0.004), male gender (β:4.140; 95% CI:1.452–6.481; p=0.003), and disease day (β:0.622; 95% CI:0.301–0.942; p<0.001). ConclusionThis study decoded the CXR features of Covid-19 pneumonia in a high-risk cohort while describing their associations.

Abdullah Ahmed Al Moweshy ◽  
Eduardo L. Fabella ◽  
Yasser Taher Al-Hassan ◽  
Hassan Abdulfatah Alramadan ◽  
Ali Jameel Al Abdullah ◽  

Background: As the global incidence of end-stage organ failure increases, the gap between organ donors and recipients continues to widen. This study was conducted to determine the association between organ donation awareness and organ donation willingness among students of a Saudi university.Design and methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to select the required 723 sample size. Estimation of proportion of students who were aware about organ donation and those who were willing to donate their organs was performed using EpiInfo© Version 7. Association between organ donation awareness and willingness was determined using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Nearly 98% of the participants were aware that organ donation saves lives (95% CI: 96.27%-98.53%); 84.09% were aware that Islam allows organ donation (95% CI: 81.25%-86.58%); 64.87% were aware that organ donation is successfully done in Saudi Arabia (95% CI: 61.32%-68.26%); 32.64% were aware that the government gives incentives to the family of an organ donor (95% CI: 29.32%-36.14%). Over half (56.71%) of the students (95% CI: 53.07 - 60.28%) expressed willingness to donate their organs. Positive association was found between awareness on the position of Islam on organ donation (OR=2.7023, p<0.0001) and awareness of that organ donation can be successfully performed in Saudi Arabia (OR=1.9447, p=0.0001).Conclusion: Awareness that Islam allows organ donation and awareness that organ donation is successfully done in Saudi Arabia increased the students’ willingness to donate.

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