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2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (10) ◽  
pp. e48
Alberto Esquenazi ◽  
Wuwei Feng ◽  
George Wittenberg ◽  
Philippe Gallien ◽  
Alessio Baricich ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Amanda Nelson ◽  
Ashima Singh ◽  
Mahua Dasgupta ◽  
Pippa M. Simpson ◽  
Asriani Chiu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ferdinand Kosak ◽  
Christof Kuhbandner

Previous research has shown that judgments of the experienced velocity of recent years passing by vary depending on the number of autobiographical memories being activated in the moment of judging. While a body of evidence shows affect to have an impact on both prospective and retrospective judgments on the experience of time for short periods, the effect of valence of memories on the experience of the passage of long intervals has not been examined yet. Thus, we asked 282 people to retrieve five either emotionally positive or negative memories from the last 5years before judging the subjectively experienced passage of time of these years. However, positive and negative events differ in some ways beyond valence, e.g., the ascribed impact on the participants’ subsequent lives as well as the stability of ascribed affective intensity: The latter decreased over time for negative but not for positive memories while ascribed impact was markedly higher for positive memories. Results indicate no significant differences between the two conditions, even after controlling for the aforementioned differences. However, exploratory analyses show that participants rate time to have passed faster, the longer the activated memories dated back on average, a result that seems in line with contextual-change hypothesis.

Penelope Strid ◽  
Carlotta Ching Ting Fok ◽  
Marianne Zotti ◽  
Holly B. Shulman ◽  
Jane Awakuni ◽  

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to examine emergency preparedness behaviors among women with a recent live birth in Hawaii. Methods: Using the 2016 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we estimated weighted prevalence of 8 preparedness behaviors. Results: Among 1010 respondents (weighted response rate, 56.3%), 79.3% reported at least 1 preparedness behavior, and 11.2% performed all 8 behaviors. The prevalence of women with a recent live birth in Hawaii reporting preparedness behaviors includes: 63.0% (95% CI: 58.7-67.1%) having enough supplies at home for at least 7 days, 41.3% (95% CI: 37.1-45.6%) having an evacuation plan for their child(ren), 38.7% (95% CI: 34.5-43.0%) having methods to keep in touch, 37.8% (95% CI: 33.7-42.1%) having an emergency meeting place, 36.6% (95% CI: 32.6-40.9%) having an evacuation plan to leave home, 34.9% (95% CI: 30.9-39.2%) having emergency supplies to take with them if they have to leave quickly, 31.8% (95% CI: 27.9-36.0%) having copies of important documents, and 31.6% (95% CI: 27.7-35.8%) having practiced what to do during a disaster. Conclusions: One in 10 women practiced all 8 behaviors, indicating more awareness efforts are needed among this population in Hawaii. The impact of preparedness interventions implemented in Hawaii can be tracked with this question over time.

2021 ◽  
Hannah M. Edwards ◽  
Rubaiyath Sarwar ◽  
Parvez Mahmud ◽  
Shekarau Emmanuel ◽  
Kolawole Maxwell ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe private sector plays a large role in malaria treatment provision in Nigeria. To improve access to, and affordability of, quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QA-ACTs) within this sector, the Affordable Medicines Facility - Malaria began operations in 2010 and transitioned to a private sector co-payment mechanism (PSCM) until 2017. To assess the impact of the scheme on the ACT market, cross-sectional household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2018 to coincide with the final stockages of ACTs procured under the PSCM. MethodsAn outlet survey was conducted targeting private pharmacies and Proprietary and Patent Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) across different regions of Nigeria to assess supply-side market factors related to availability and cost of antimalarials, including ACTs subsidised under the PSCM (called green leaf ACTs on account of their green leaf logo) and those not subsidised (non-green leaf ACTs). A concurrent household survey was conducted to determine demand-side factors related to treatment seeking practices, ACT brand preference and purchase decision. Data were compared with previous ACTWatch surveys to consider change over time.ResultsAvailability of ACTs increased significantly over the PSCM period and was almost universal by the time of the 2018 market survey. This increase was seen particularly among PPMVs. While the cost of green leaf ACTs remained relatively stable over time, the cost of non-green leaf ACTs reduced significantly so that by 2018 they had equivalent affordability. Unsubsidised brands were also available in different formulations and dosages, with double-strength ACTs reported as the most frequently purchased dosage type, and child ACTs popular in suspension and dispersible forms (forms not subsidised by the PSCM).ConclusionsThe PSCM had a clear impact on increasing not only the reach of subsidised QA brands, but also of non-subsidised brands. Increased market competition led to innovation from unsubsidised brands and large reductions in costs to make them competitive with subsidised brands. Concerns are drawn from the large market share that non-QA brands have managed to gain as well as the continued market share of oral artemisinin monotherapies. Continued monitoring of the market is recommended, along with improved local capacity for QA-certification and monitoring.

2021 ◽  
Jonathan Chong ◽  
Dwayne Kelly ◽  
Shivam Agrawal ◽  
Nam Nguyen ◽  
Mauricio Monzon

Abstract Electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are closely monitored in surveillance operations because they operate in challenging environments and are subject to stressful events that, if left without intervention, may lead to unplanned shutdowns, decreased run life, or even failures. These events can occur unannounced with different magnitudes of severity due to the large range of operating conditions. Thus, a universally prescriptive response is challenging because each well may require a tailored and dynamic course of action over time. This paper proposes leveraging a powerful multidimensional state engine known as automated events detection (AED), working together with an artificial intelligence agent, to respond to these stressful events and subsequently improve actions using a reinforcement learning (RL) scheme. Motivations of this approach are to move toward more autonomous, self-protecting systems with closed-loop actions and to achieve this at scale across many wells.

Yi Sun ◽  
Teruaki Hayashi ◽  
Yukio Ohsawa

AbstractDeciding when and which products to recommend to whom is always an essential issue for retailers. In this study, we propose a mixed framework with two components to capture customer buying behavior and its changes over time and visualize these results to better help retailers choose and target products strategically for marketing. In this framework, a topic model is first used to extract customer’s purchase behavior instead of association rules or K-means as mainly used in market field. To automatically choose the optimal number of topics, we implement an approach proposed by Koltcov et al. on point-of-sale (POS) data in the supermarket. Meanwhile, to grasp the change of topics over time, we divided monthly POS data in half and applied the topic model with Renyi entropy separately. The results suggest that splitting data might be a better way to understand customer behavior. Second, we consider how to develop an effective way to visualize the results of the topic model, which is essential, because in a supermarket context, simply knowing which product categories are included under which topics is not enough to support how a supermarket promotes their products. To address this, we design a three-layer visualization approach to better interpret the topic model results and to help retailers design target promotion strategies. The design of visualization was overlooked by studies related to the use of topic models on supermarket data. Finally, to demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed framework, we conduct a simple scenario-based analysis between our framework and other models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and the Dynamic Topic Model (DTM). The results show that for most periods, our proposed framework outperforms LDA and DTM.

Robert Creed ◽  
Gretchen L. Bailey ◽  
James Skelton ◽  
Bryan L. Brown

The dilution effect was originally proposed to describe the negative effect of increased host diversity on parasite abundance; with greater host diversity, parasite levels per host are predicted to be lower due to a higher probability of dispersing parasites encountering non-competent hosts. Dilution effects could also occur in many mutualisms if dispersing symbionts encounter hosts that vary in their competency. The introduction of non-native hosts can change community competency of a local group of host species. Crayfish introductions are occurring world-wide and these introductions are likely disrupting native crayfish-symbiont systems. Branchiobdellidan symbionts declined on native Cambarus crayfish occurring in the presence and absence of non-native Faxonius crayfish in the New River, USA. We performed an experiment investigating the effect of host density (1 vs 2 native hosts) and host diversity (1 native host and 1 introduced host) on branchiobdellidan abundance. The introduced F. cristavarius is a non-competent host for these worms. Six C. ingens were stocked on a C. chasmodactylus in each treatment and worm numbers were followed over 34 days. Worm numbers decreased over time on C. chasmodactylus alone and in the treatment in which a C. chasmodactylus was paired with an F. cristavarius. Worm numbers remained highest in the 2 C. chasmodactylus treatment . There was no significant effect of host diversity on worm reproduction. Crayfish invasions may have negative effects on mutualistic symbionts depending on the competence of introduced hosts. Loss of native symbionts is one of the potential hidden, negative effects of invasions on native freshwater diversity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Aida Yuste ◽  
Esteban Leonardo Arosemena ◽  
M. Àngels Calvo

AbstractThe benefits of probiotics for the improvement of animal health status have been of great interest in recent years. For this reason, in this study was aimed at assessing a strain with probiotic potential to be added to the feed. Therefore, the objective of this trial is to use a strain with probiotic potential isolated from the intestinal microbiota of Helix aspersa Müller to subsequently add it to the feed of this species to improve its health status. So, the strain is characterized, and its probiotic potential is demonstrated. Finally, with the aim of preserving the probiotic strain by freeze-drying so that it can later be added to the feed, different cryoprotectants were studied that could give it a higher survival rate over time. The cryoprotectant that gives the best result with strain survival rate is trehalose 15%.

Joanna Dipnall ◽  
Frederick Rivara ◽  
Ronan Lyons ◽  
Shanthi Ameratunga ◽  
Mariana Brussoni ◽  

Background: Injury is a leading contributor to the global disease burden in children, affecting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL)—yet valid estimates of burden are absent. Methods: This study pooled longitudinal data from five cohort studies of pediatric injury survivors (5–17 years) at baseline, 1-, 4-, 6-, 12-, and 24- months (n = 2334). HRQoL post-injury was measured using the 3-level EQ-5D utility score (EQ-5D) and five health states (mobility, self-care, activity, pain, anxiety and depression (anxiety)). Results: Mean EQ-5D post-injury did not return to baseline level (0.95) by 24 months (0.88) and was lower for females over time (−0.04, 95%CI −0.05, −0.02). A decreased adjusted risk ratio over time (ARR) was observed for intentional injuries (pain: 0.85, 95%CI 0.73,0.98; anxiety: 0.62, 95%CI 0.49,0.78); spinal cord injuries (mobility: 0.61, 95%CI 0.45,0.83), self-care: 0.76, 95%CI 0.63,0.91, activity: 0.64, 95%CI 0.47,0.88); moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (activity: 0.83, 95%CI 0.71,0.96). ARRs were also low for certain fractures, with various health states affected. Conclusions: HRQoL outcomes over time for children and adolescents post-injury differed across key demographic and injury related attributes. HRQoL did not reach levels consistent with full health by 24 months with recovery plateauing from 6 to 24 months. Tailored interventions are required to respond to the varying post-injury recovery trajectories in this population.

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