In this paper, we will give a general introduction to the Ali CMB Polarization Telescope (AliCPT) project, which is a Sino–US joint project led by the Institute of High Energy Physics and involves many different institutes in China. It is the first ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment in China and an integral part of China's Gravitational-wave Program. The main scientific goal of the AliCPT project is to probe the primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) originating from the very early Universe. The AliCPT project includes two stages. The first stage, referred to as AliCPT-1, is to build a telescope in the Ali region of Tibet at an altitude of 5250 meters. Once completed, it will be the highest ground-based CMB observatory in the world and will open a new window for probing PGWs in the northern hemisphere. The AliCPT-1 telescope is designed to have about 7000 transition-edge sensor detectors at 95 GHz and 150 GHz. The second stage is to have a more sensitive telescope (AliCPT-2) with more than 20 000 detectors. Our simulations show that AliCPT will improve the current constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by one order of magnitude with three years' observation. Besides the PGWs, AliCPT will also enable a precise measurement of the CMB rotation angle and provide a precise test of the CPT symmetry. We show that three years' observation will improve the current limit by two orders of magnitude.
This essay outlines the Holographic Spacetime (HST) theory of cosmology and its relation to conventional theories of inflation. The predictions of the theory are compatible with observations, and one must hope for data on primordial gravitational waves or non-Gaussian fluctuations to distinguish it from conventional models. The model predicts an early era of structure formation, prior to the Big Bang. Understanding the fate of those structures requires complicated simulations that have not yet been done. The result of those calculations might falsify the model, or might provide a very economical framework for explaining dark matter and the generation of the baryon asymmetry.