viscous effects
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 570
Anargyros S. Mavrakos ◽  
Dimitrios N. Konispoliatis ◽  
Dimitrios G. Ntouras ◽  
George P. Papadakis ◽  
Spyros A. Mavrakos

Moonpool-type floaters were initially proposed for applications such as artificial islands or as protecting barriers around a small area enabling work at the inner surface to be carried out in relatively calm water. In recent years, a growing interest on such structures has been noted, especially in relation to their use as heaving wave energy converters or as oscillating water column (OWC) devices for the extraction of energy from waves. Furthermore, in the offshore marine industry, several types of vessels are frequently constructed with moonpools. The present paper deals with the hydrodynamics of bottomless cylindrical bodies having vertical symmetry axis and floating in a water of finite depth. Two computation methods were implemented and compared: a theoretical approach solving analytically the corresponding diffraction problem around the moonpool floater and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver, which considers the viscous effects near the sharp edges of the body (vortex shedding) as non-negligible. Two different moonpool-type configurations were examined, and some interesting phenomena were discussed concerning the viscous effects and irregularities caused by the resonance of the confined fluid.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
M.F. Uddin ◽  
M.G. Hafez ◽  
Inho Hwang ◽  
Choonkil Park

In this work, the model equation with space fractional-order (FO) is used to investigate the nonlinear ion acoustic shock wave excitations (NIASWEs) in an unmagnetized collisionless weakly relativistic plasma having inertial relativistic ions fluid with viscous effects, inertial-less non-thermal electrons and inertial-less Boltzmann positrons. To do it, the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (KdVBE) is derived from the considered fluid model equations by implementing the standard reductive perturbation method. Accordingly, such equation is converted to space fractional KdVBE via Agrawal’s variational principle with the help of the beta fractional derivative and its properties. The exact analytical solutions of KdVBE with space FO are determined via the modified Kudryashov method. The influence of space fractional and other related plasma parameters on NIASWEs are investigated. The outcomes would be useful to understand the nature of shocks with the presence of non-local or local space in many astrophysical and space environments (especially in the relativistic wind of pulsar magnetosphere, polar regions of neutron stars, etc.) and further laboratory verification.

2022 ◽  
Gustavo Luiz Olichevis Halila ◽  
Leandro Neves Pedreiro ◽  
Eduardo Silveira Molina ◽  
Marcos Cesar Savio

2022 ◽  
George Torres ◽  
Emanuel A. Camacho ◽  
Flavio D. Marques ◽  
Andre R. Silva

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12097
Nikos Spyropoulos ◽  
George Papadakis ◽  
John M. Prospathopoulos ◽  
Vasilis A. Riziotis

In this paper, the accuracy of an in-house Actuator Line (AL) model is tested on aeroelastic simulations of a Wind Turbine (WT) rotor and a helicopter Main Rotor (MR) under uniform free-stream flow. For the scope of aeroelastic analyses, the AL model is coupled with an in-house multibody dynamics code in which the blades are modeled as beams. The advantage from the introduction of CFD analysis in rotorcraft aeroelasticity is related to its capability to account in detail for the interaction of the rotor wake with the boundary layer developed on the surrounding bodies. This has proven to be of great importance in order to accurately estimate the aerodynamic forces and thus the corresponding structural loads and deflections of the blades. In wind turbine applications, a good example of the above is the rotor/ground interaction. In helicopter configurations, the interaction of MR with the ground or the fuselage and the interaction of tail rotor with the duct in fenestron configurations are typical examples. Furthermore, CFD aerodynamic analysis is an obvious modeling option in which the above mentioned asset can be combined with the consideration of the mutual interaction of the rotor with the ambient turbulence. A WT rotor operating inside the atmospheric boundary layer under turbulent free-stream flow is such a case. In the paper, AL results are compared against Blade Element Momentum (BEM) and Lifting Line (LL) model results in the case of the WT, whereas LL and measured data are considered in the helicopter cases. Blade loads and deflections are mainly compared as azimuthal variations. In the helicopter MR cases, where comparison is made against experimental data, harmonic analysis of structural loads is shown as well. Overall, AL proves to be as reliable as LL in the canonical cases addressed in this paper in terms of loads and deflections predictions. Therefore, it can be trusted in more complex flow conditions where viscous effects are pronounced.

Jonathon K. Schuh

Surface textures decrease friction in lubricated sliding contact. Traditionally, the friction reduction for a given textured surface is determined by using the Reynolds equation, which neglects fluid inertia. However, as the separation and relative motion between the surfaces increase, inertia can affect the measured tangential and normal forces for flow over a textured surface, and thus cause the coefficient of friction to differ from the purely viscous, Stokes flow prediction. Here, the increase in torque and normal force between a moving plate and stationary textured surface, which simulates a textured thrust bearing, are calculated as a function of the Reynolds number in the thin film limit. The predictions for a non-textured thrust bearing are compared to fully 3-D numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and the predictions for textured thrust bearings are compared to experimental data given in the literature. Good agreement is seen between the predictions and the data, validating the predicted scaling laws. This work also suggests that inertia can be used as a secondary effect to reduce friction in lubricated sliding, and textures that take advantage of the inertial effects will have lower friction than textures that only use purely viscous effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 153 (A2) ◽  
R P Dallinga ◽  
R H M Huijsmans

Historically “scale effects” in the interpretation of tests with scale models in waves using Froude’s Law of Similitude are mostly associated with viscous effects. Nowadays, with a much more complete modelling of reality and a focus on higher order non-linear phenomena, scaling of model test results implies a wider range of assumptions than the validity of Froude’s Law. Our contribution to the conference is a visionary review of contemporary and future problems in the interpretation of these tests. In this context we will discuss the developments in test techniques, including the development of a new Two-Phase Laboratory facilitating seakeeping and sloshing tests at reduced air pressure.

Fluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (12) ◽  
pp. 447
Marcello Lappa ◽  
Aydin Sayar ◽  
Wasim Waris

Convection induced in a layer of liquid with a top free surface by a distribution of heating elements at the bottom can be seen as a variant of standard Marangoni–Rayleigh–Bénard Convection where in place of a flat boundary at constant temperature delimiting the system from below, the underlying thermal inhomogeneity reflects the existence of a topography. In the present work, this problem is investigated numerically through solution of the governing equations for mass, momentum and energy in their complete, three-dimensional time-dependent and non-linear form. Emphasis is given to a class of liquids for which thermal diffusion is expected to dominate over viscous effects (liquid metals). Fixing the Rayleigh and Marangoni number to 104 and 5 × 103, respectively, the sensitivity of the problem to the geometrical, kinematic and thermal boundary conditions is investigated parametrically by changing: the number and spacing of heating elements, their vertical extension, the nature of the lateral boundary (solid walls or periodic boundary) and the thermal behavior of the portions of bottom wall between adjoining elements (assumed to be either adiabatic or at the same temperature of the hot blocks). It is shown that, like the parent phenomena, this type of thermal flow is extremely sensitive to the specific conditions considered. The topography can be used to exert a control on the emerging flow in terms of temporal response and patterning behavior.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 8080
Iván Castro-Fernández ◽  
Ricardo Borobia-Moreno ◽  
Rauno Cavallaro ◽  
Gonzalo Sánchez-Arriaga

The validity of using a low-computational-cost model for the aerodynamic characterization of Airborne Wind Energy Systems was studied by benchmarking a three-dimensional Unsteady Panel Method (UnPaM) with experimental data from a flight test campaign of a two-line Rigid-Framed Delta kite. The latter, and a subsequent analysis of the experimental data, provided the evolution of the tether tensions, the full kinematic state of the kite (aerodynamic velocity and angular velocity vectors, among others), and its aerodynamic coefficients. The history of the kinematic state was used as input for UnPaM that provided a set of theoretical aerodynamic coefficients. Disparate conclusions were found when comparing the experimental and theoretical aerodynamic coefficients. For a wide range of angles of attack and sideslip angles, the agreement in the lift and lateral force coefficients was good and moderate, respectively, considering UnPaM is a potential flow tool. As expected, UnPaM predicts a much lower drag because it ignores viscous effects. The comparison of the aerodynamic torque coefficients is more delicate due to uncertainties on the experimental data. Besides fully non-stationary simulations, the lift coefficient was also studied with UnPaM by assuming quasi-steady and steady conditions. It was found that for a typical figure-of-eight trajectory there are no significant differences between unsteady and quasi-steady approaches allowing for fast simulations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1234
Gregory J. Grigoropoulos ◽  
Christos Bakirtzoglou ◽  
George Papadakis ◽  
Dimitrios Ntouras

The present paper proposes a new mixed-fidelity method to optimize the shape of ships using genetic algorithms (GA) and potential flow codes to evaluate the hydrodynamics of variant hull forms, enhanced by a surrogate model based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to account for viscous effects. The performance of the variant hull forms generated by the GA is evaluated for calm water resistance using potential flow methods which are quite fast when they run on modern computers. However, these methods do not take into account the viscous effects which are dominant in the stern region of the ship. Solvers of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANS) should be used in this respect, which, however, are too time-consuming to be used for the evaluation of some hundreds of variants within the GA search. In this study, a RANS solver is used prior to the execution of the GA to train an ANN in modeling the effect of stern design geometrical parameters only. Potential flow results, accounting for the geometrical design parameters of the rest of the hull, are combined with the aforementioned trained meta-model for the final hull form evaluation. This work concentrates on the provision of a more reliable framework for the evaluation of hull form performance in calm water without a significant increase of the computing time.

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