Historical Summary, Programs, and Services for Persons With Developmental Disabilities and Severe Behaviors

2004 ◽  
Vol 49 (6) ◽  
pp. 769-770
K. Mark Derby ◽  
Kimberly P. Weber
1996 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 68-72 ◽  
Christine M. Rankovic ◽  
William M. Rabinowitz ◽  
Gregory L. Lof

The Audiokinetron is a device that processes music for earphone presentation to patients undergoing auditory integration training, a treatment for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Intensity levels produced by the Audiokinetron were measured under realistic listening conditions with a KEMAR manikin substituted for a patient. Average levels at the eardrum were 110 dB SPL when the device was adjusted to the highest setting employed by a local, trained AIT practitioner and 118 dB SPL at the maximum setting of the device. These levels are potentially harmful to hearing and warrant further safety studies of AIT instruments and protocols.

2011 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 109-113
Karen Copple ◽  
Rajinder Koul ◽  
Devender Banda ◽  
Ellen Frye

Abstract One of the instructional techniques reported in the literature to teach communication skills to persons with autism is video modeling (VM). VM is a form of observational learning that involves watching and imitating the desired target behavior(s) exhibited by the person on the videotape. VM has been used to teach a variety of social and communicative behaviors to persons with developmental disabilities such as autism. In this paper, we describe the VM technique and summarize the results of two single-subject experimental design studies that investigated the acquisition of spontaneous requesting skills using a speech generating device (SGD) by persons with autism following a VM intervention. The results of these two studies indicate that a VM treatment package that includes a SGD as one of its components can be effective in facilitating communication in individuals with autism who have little or no functional speech.

2020 ◽  
Vol 51 (3) ◽  
pp. 795-806 ◽  
Elizabeth J. Short ◽  
Rachael Cooper Schindler ◽  
Rita Obeid ◽  
Maia M. Noeder ◽  
Laura E. Hlavaty ◽  

Purpose Play is a critical aspect of children's development, and researchers have long argued that symbolic deficits in play may be diagnostic of developmental disabilities. This study examined whether deficits in play emerge as a function of developmental disabilities and whether our perceptions of play are colored by differences in language and behavioral presentations. Method Ninety-three children participated in this study (typically developing [TD]; n = 23, developmental language disorders [DLD]; n = 24, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]; n = 26, and autism spectrum disorder [ASD]; n = 20). Children were videotaped engaging in free-play. Children's symbolic play (imagination, organization, elaboration, and comfort) was scored under conditions of both audible language and no audible language to assess diagnostic group differences in play and whether audible language impacted raters' perception of play. Results Significant differences in play were evident across diagnostic groups. The presence of language did not alter play ratings for the TD group, but differences were found among the other diagnostic groups. When language was audible, children with DLD and ASD (but not ADHD) were scored poorly on play compared to their TD peers. When language was not audible, children with DLD were perceived to play better than when language was audible. Conversely, children with ADHD showed organizational deficits when language was not available to support their play. Finally, children with ASD demonstrated poor play performance regardless of whether language was audible or not. Conclusions Language affects our understanding of play skills in some young children. Parents, researchers, and clinicians must be careful not to underestimate or overestimate play based on language presentation. Differential skills in language have the potential to unduly influence our perceptions of play for children with developmental disabilities.

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