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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. A. F. Khan ◽  
M. Sohaib ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
M. S. Haider ◽  
M. Chaudhry

Abstract The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.


2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Leigh Ann O’Banion ◽  
Rachel C. Dirks ◽  
Sammy S. Siada ◽  
Joseph J. Dubose ◽  
Kenji Inaba ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 101969
Author(s):  
Joshua Makary ◽  
Peter Galloway ◽  
Pascal Mancuso

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Muzaffar ◽  
M. A. Khan ◽  
M. H. Mushtaq ◽  
M. Nasir ◽  
A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 713-726
Author(s):  
Flávio Gomes Barcelos ◽  
◽  
Taís Ramalho dos Anjos ◽  
Leila Auxiliadora de Arruda Alencar ◽  
Vinicius Silva Castro ◽  
...  

Mycobacterium bovis is a bacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that causes tuberculosis in cattle and in other domestic and wild animals, as well as in humans. Disease control measures are carried out by slaughtering animals tested positive in the intradermal tuberculinization test and sanitation of their original living spaces, in addition to epidemiological surveillance carried out through the sanitary inspection of bovine carcasses in slaughterhouses. In the latter, official inspection services collect samples from macroscopic lesions suspected of bovine tuberculosis, which are then sent for laboratory analysis. Knowledge concerning the variables associated with the occurrence of M. bovis can aid in decision-making regarding control and disease eradication efforts. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for a positive M. bovis diagnosis in suspected bovine tuberculosis lesions obtained during epidemiological surveillance activities in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 105 suspicious lesions were analyzed using the Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested q-PCR) method, of which 14 (13.33%) tested positive for M. bovis. Univariate and bivariate statistical analyses indicated that the variable “animal slaughter” was the only risk factor presenting statistical significance associated with the diagnosis of M. bovis (p < 0.05), demonstrating that macroscopic lesions suspected as being caused by bovine tuberculosis from animals with an in vivo diagnosis were 2.82 - fold more likely to result in a positive M. bovis diagnosis by molecular tests.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 901-910
Author(s):  
Lilian Bernardina Ferreira ◽  
◽  
Larissa de Freitas Santiago Israel ◽  
Renata Fernandes Rabello ◽  
Guilherme Nunes de Souza ◽  
...  

Staphylococcus bacteria are often associated with subclinical bovine mastitis. This study aimed to identify multiresistant Staphylococcus spp. associated with subclinical mastitis and the associated risk factors. Twenty-three dairy farms with a history of decrease in milk production, located in the lower Acre region, Brazil, were selected. An epidemiological questionnaire was provided in all farms. All animals were examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and their milk samples were collected for bacterial culture. After isolation and identification, the disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed against nine classes of antimicrobials. Of the 339 cows examined using the CMT, 108 had mastitis. A total of 229 milk samples were collected from individual teats. MALDI-TOF MS found isolates belonging to eight species of Staphylococcus, in 101 of these samples. S. chromogenes (58.4%) demonstrated strongest resistance to the nine classes of antimicrobial active principles. Nineteen isolates with multidrug resistance phenotypic profile were identified. This phenotypic expression indicates wide circulation of resistant genes in this species. The presence of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus spp. in this study was correlated with lack of water for cleaning the corral, which is a preventive factor, minimizing the transmission and persistence of pathogens in the farms.


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