Risk Factors
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 204-205
Pooja Chand ◽  
Renuka Janjanam ◽  

Infertility is the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy over an average period of one year (in a woman under 35 years of age) or 6 months (in a woman above 35 years of age) despite adequate, regular (3-4 times per week), unprotected sexual intercourse. There are some risk factors that may give chances for infertility like Age, diabetes, eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia, excessive use of alcohol, exposure to environmental toxins, such as lead and pesticides, over exercising etc. Infertility may be caused by a number of different factors, either in the male or female reproductive systems. So therefore it is most important to identify the cause and treat the infertility for becoming fertile to a woman.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 314-323
Ji-Young Hwang ◽  
Il-Su Park

Objectives: This study analyzed risk factors for suicidal ideation in South Koreans from a life cycle perspective.Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in 2015 as part of the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The participants comprised 5,935 individuals aged 12 years or older. The statistical analysis reflected the complex sampling design of the KNHANES, and the Rao-Scott chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed.Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 5.7% in adolescents, 3.7% in young adults, 5.4% in middle-aged adults, and 7.0% in older adults. Depression and stress were risk factors in every stage of the life cycle. In those aged 12 to 19 years, activity restrictions were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Education and subjective health status were risk factors in adults aged 20 to 39 years, and education, activity restrictions, and quality of life were the major risk factors in those aged 40 to 64 years. For adults 65 years of age or older, the risk of suicidal ideation was higher among those with inappropriate sleep time.Conclusion: The risk factors for suicidal ideation were found to be different across stages of the life cycle. This suggests a need for individualized suicide prevention plans and specific government policies that reflect the characteristics of each life cycle stage.

2021 ◽  
pp. 001789692110510
Ananya Tina Banerjee ◽  
Anisha Mahajan ◽  
Avantika Mathur-Balendra ◽  
Nazima Qureshi ◽  
Marlon Teekah ◽  

Objective: Evidence suggests the increased prevalence of diabetes among South Asian (SA) adolescents is due to their genetic risk profile. The South Asian Adolescent Diabetes Awareness Program (SAADAP) is a pilot intervention for SA youth in Canada with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to investigate changes in (1) diabetes knowledge and associated risk factors, (2) risk perception and (3) health behaviours among adolescents participating in SAADAP. Design: One-group pre-test, post-test design informed by a commitment to community-based participatory research (CBPR). Setting: Sixty-eight adolescents aged 13–17 years with a family history of T2DM participated in SAADAP in a clinical-community setting in Canada. Method: Pre–post questionnaires were administered to evaluate diabetes knowledge and associated risk factors, risk perceptions and health behaviours. Analyses were restricted to 49 participants who attended at least four diabetes education sessions. Results: The mean age of adolescents was 14.5 years, and 57.1% self-identified as girls. The difference in knowledge about the definition, symptoms and complications of T2DM from baseline to post-intervention was 3.32 out of 21 ( p < .001) among SA youth. There was significant increase in learning about diabetes risk factors ( p < .001) from baseline to post-intervention. Almost 60% of participants exhibited no change in their risk perception after intervention. Approximately two-thirds of the participants self-reported positive changes in health behaviours after completing the programme. Conclusion: SAADAP showed promising outcomes in raising knowledge and improving health behaviours in SA adolescents with a family history of diabetes. Larger controlled trials with longer follow-up are recommended to support and expand on the current findings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Rui Li ◽  
Zhenhua Lu ◽  
Zhen Sun ◽  
Xiaolei Shi ◽  
Zhe Li ◽  

Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is considered one of the most important risk factors affecting the prognosis of distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC). This study aimed to demonstrate the superiority of log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) compared with other LN stages, and to establish a novel prognostic nomogram to predict the cancer-specific survival (CSS) of DCC.Methods: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, the data of 676 patients after DCC radical operation were screened, and patients were randomly divided into training (n = 474) and validation sets (n = 474). The prognostic evaluation performance of the LODDS and American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) N stage and lymph node ratio (LNR) were compared using the Akaike information criteria, receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC), and C-index. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to screen independent risk factors, and a LODDS-based nomogram prognostic staging model was established. The nomogram's precision was verified by C-index, calibration curves, and AUC, and the results were compared with those of the AJCC TNM staging system.Results:Compared with the other two stages of LN metastasis, LODDS was most effective in predicting CSS in patients with DCC. Multivariate analysis proved that LODDS, histologic grade, SEER historic stage, and tumor size were independent risk factors for DCC. The C-index of the nomogram, based on the above factors, in the validation set was 0.663. The 1-, 3-, and 5-y AUCs were 0.735, 0.679, and 0.745, respectively. Its good performance was also verified by calibration curves. In addition, the C-index and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the nomogram performed better than the AJCC TNM staging system.Conclusion:For postoperative patients with DCC, the LODDS stage yielded better prognostic efficiency than the AJCC N and LNR stages. Compared with the AJCC TNM staging system, the nomogram, based on the LODDS, demonstrated superior performance.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Kevin G. Saulnier ◽  
Brandon Koscinski ◽  
Marija Volarov ◽  
Catherine Accorso ◽  
Megan J. Austin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Oksana Debrah ◽  
Francis Agyemang-Yeboah ◽  
Emmanuel Timmy Donkoh ◽  
Richard Harry Asmah

Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main etiological factor for pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer. HPV type-specific vaccination is being widely recommended to control the burden of disease, but the genotype-specific distribution of HPV may vary in different countries. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among women attending reproductive health services in Ghana, their associated risk factors, and to assess the potential coverage of identified HPV genotypes by three licensed vaccines among these women. Method Women presenting for reproductive health services in two regional hospitals in Accra and Kumasi from October 2014 to March 2015 were conveniently recruited into the study (n = 317). HPV-DNA detection and genotype identification were carried out by a nested multiplex PCR assay that combines degenerate E6/E7 consensus primers and type-specific primers for the detection and typing of eighteen HPV genotypes. Cytology was performed to screen women for cervical cancer lesions. Risk factors for HPV infection were analyzed by logistic regression. Statistical significance was accepted for p < 0.05. Results The age of study participants ranged from 21 to 76 years. Among women positive for HPV, 35.0% were infected with high-risk HPV, 14.5% with probable high-risk HPV, and 17.0% with low-risk HPV. The prevalence of HPV 16/18 was 8.2%, HPV 6/11/16/18 was 9.1% and HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 was 28.4%. The most prevalent among HR-HPV were types 52 (18.3%) and 58 (8.8%). HPV positivity may be associated with educational background (p < 0.001), age at first pregnancy (p = 0.028), and age at coitarche (p = 0.016). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of HR-HPV infection among women. The high prevalence of HR HPV indicates that multivalent vaccines will be useful for controlling HPV burden in general population contexts. The distribution of HPVs in this population suggests that of the three currently available vaccines the nonavalent vaccine, which protects against seven HPV types in addition to HPV 16 and 18, has the highest coverage of HPV infections among Ghanaian women. Healthcare officials planning to reduce the transmission of HPV and cervical cancer must consider the coverage of the nonavalent vaccine as an advantage.

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