Experimental Design
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Luiz Leonardo Ferreira ◽  
Ivan Ricardo Carvalho ◽  
Francine Lautenchleger ◽  
Tamires Silva Martins ◽  
Paulo Ricardo Viana Carvalho ◽  

The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of soybean seedlings in different seed treatments. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Mineiros, GO. The soil was classified as Quartzarenic Entisol. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial 5x4, corresponding to seed treatments (Water, Cruiser, Fipronil Alta, Fortenza and Standak Top) in four soybean cultivars (Bonus, Ultra, Extra and BKS7830), in four replications. Before planting, pre-planting desiccation was performed. The fertilization used was 450 kg ha-1 of fertilizer 05-25-15 applied in the furrow and in a single dose next to the sowing. During the conduction of the experiment the control of pests, diseases and weeds were carried out as necessary, respecting the best practices and integrated management. The data obtained were subjected to the assumptions of the statistical model, verifying the normality and homogeneity of the residual variances, as well as the additivity of the model. Uni and multivariate tools were applied. The analysis were performed at the interface Rbio and R. The interaction of soybean cultivars and types of seed treatment showed variations in all analysis evaluated in soybean seedlings. The best performances were verified among the cultivars BKS7830 that expressed the largest shoot fresh matter when submitted to Cruiser seed treatment, while the highest root length was expressed in the cultivar Ultra in the Fortenza seed treatment.

2021 ◽  
Martina Stefanova Zaharieva ◽  
Šimon Kucharský ◽  
Cristina Colonnesi ◽  
Tongyu Gu ◽  
Soobin Jo ◽  

Methodological variations and inconsistency in reporting practices pose considerable challenges to the interpretation and generalizability of outcomes derived from the habituation paradigm - one of the most prominent methods for studying infant cognition. In a systematic review, we map out experimental design choices in habituation study samples aged 0-18 months using looking time measures. 2,853 records published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000-2019 were extracted from PsycInfo and Web of Science. 785 (27.5%) papers were identified after screening (Fleiss kappa = .60, 95%, CI[.40 - .80], 6 blind raters). We adopt a collaborative, multi-lab approach for crowd-sourced data collection involving raters from the developmental research community. In a meta-analysis, we assess the impact of habituation detection criteria on the novelty effect size, moderated by age. Our results will inform a detailed evaluation of experimental designs and a set of specific guidelines to improve research and reporting practices in infant habituation research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-8
Anđelko Aleksić ◽  
Milenko Sekulić ◽  
Marin Gostimirović ◽  
Dragan Rodić ◽  

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of cutting parameters on cutting forces during turning of CPM 10V steel with coated cutting tool. Machining of CPM 10V steel and finding a suitable tool is very challenging due to its physical and mechanical properties, especially since the machining of this material has not been extensively researched. The experiments were carried out using an Index GU -600 CNC lathe and the cutting forces were measured in process. A three-factorial three-level experimental design was used for the experiments. Statistical method analysis of variance (ANOVA) is applied to study the effects of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting forces. The results of this study show that depth of cut has the most significant effect on main force and radial force, while feed rate and cutting speed have the most significant effect on feed force. The developed model can be used in the machining industry to predict and analyze cutting parameters for optimal cutting forces.

2021 ◽  
zongkun chen ◽  
Ralf Schmid ◽  
Xingkun Wang ◽  
Mengqi Fu ◽  
Zhongkang Han ◽  

Abstract Two-dimensional (2D) materials prepared by a wet-chemical precipitation route exhibit many unique properties and high potential in various fields. Still, simple, rational and green fabrication of target materials remains challenging due to the lack of a guiding principle. Here, we propose a universal qualitative model for 2D materials grown for layered and non-layered crystal structures by wet-chemical precipitation, which is confirmed by both theoretical simulation and experimental results. It demonstrates that 2D growth can be obtained by only tuning reaction concentration and temperature. This model not only has been applied to fabricate more than 30 different 2D nanomaterials in water at room temperature in the absence of additives, but also is promising in optimizing the experimental design of numerous other 2D nanomaterials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 1349-1357
Ana Amalia

 ABSTRAK Hipertensi sering terjadi pada lansia karena terjadi perubahan struktural dan fungsional pada sistem pembuluh perifer yang mengakibatkan penuruan distensi dan daya regang pembuluh darah. Kurangnya pengetahuan pasien tentang penyakit hipertensi menyebabkan target terapi pengobatan sulit untuk dicapai. Pada pengabdian masyarakat ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan pasien lansia yang menderita hipertensi dengan cara pemberian informasi melalui leaflet. Metode pengabdian masyarakat ini menggunakan rancangan pre-eksperimental dengan cara pre test – post test design yaitu dengan melakukan intervensi berupa penyuluhan menggunakan leaflet. Hasil pengabdian masyarakat ini menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pemberian leaflet dan edukasi terhadap peningkatan pengetahuan pasien hipertensi dengan nilai p-value 0,001. Terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pemberian leaflet dan edukasi terhadap penurunan tekanan darah sistolik pasien hipertensi dengan nilai p-value 0,006 dan tidak terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pemberian leaflet dan edukasi terhadap peningkatan pengetahuan pasien hipertensi dengan nilai p-value 0,414. Kata kunci: Hipertensi, Lansia, Leaflet, Pengetahuan  ABSTRACT Hypertension often occurs in the elderly due to structural and functional changes in the peripheral vascular system which results in decreased distension and stretching of blood vessels. The patient's lack of knowledge about hypertension causes the target of treatment therapy to be difficult to achieve. This community service aims to increase the knowledge of elderly patients suffering from hypertension by providing information through leaflets. This community service method uses a pre-experimental design by means of pre-test - post-test design, namely by intervening in the form of counseling using leaflets. The results of this community service show that there is a significant effect on the provision of leaflets and education on increasing the knowledge of hypertensive patients with a p-value of 0.001. There is a significant effect on the provision of leaflets and education on the reduction of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with a p-value of 0.006 and there is no significant effect on leaflet provision and education on increasing knowledge of hypertensive patients with a p-value of 0.414. Keywords: Hypertension, Elderly, Leaflet, Knowledge

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 64-69
Inang Widigdo

This research is motivated by the low mastery of basic movements due to the incorrect way of doing the passing technique. How to teach volleyball games using the lecture method so as to make students less interested so that students become less active during the learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was effectiveness in the problem based learning model on the psychomotor outcomes of volleyball underpassing in class XI students of SMK Negeri 2 Semarang and discovery learning models on psychomotor outcomes of volleyball underpassing in class XI students of SMK Negeri 2 Semarang. The research method used in this research is Quasi Experimental Design (quasi-experimental) with the design used in this study is the Noneequivalent Control Group Design. Data collection techniques using tests. The population in this study were students of class XI SMK N 2 Semarang, with samples of class XI BDP 1 and XI UPW 1 students. The results showed that the hypothesis test was obtained t count (22.669 < 29.556) which means that the problem based learning and discovery learning models are effective in psychomotor results of passing under volleyball in class XI students of SMK N 2 Semarang. The results of the effectiveness of passing down volleyball with a problem based learning model of 83.06. While the results of the effectiveness of passing down volleyball with the discovery learning model of 89.00. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the discovery learning learning model is more effective than problem based learning exercises for the effectiveness of passing down volleyball in class XI students of SMK N 2 Semarang, because from the data the value of the discovery learning model is greater than problem based learning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 165
Marco Esposito ◽  
Maria Teresa Dipierro ◽  
Federica Mondani ◽  
Giulia Iurato ◽  
Paolo Mirizzi ◽  

Autism spectrum disorders represent a challenge for professionals, who must include in their individualized educational interventions goals for core symptoms (social–communication and stereotypies/restricted interests) and comorbidities. The narrowness of interests and the high frequency of repetitive behaviors in children with autism often constitute an obstacle for learning and the quality of life, and for their caregivers as well. In the scientific literature, behavioral interventions based on both aversive and, less commonly, positive procedures have been implemented to reduce the frequency of stereotypies. The following study was carried out with the intention of replicating a Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing procedure applied by Nuzzolo-Gomez, Leonard, Ortiz, Rivera and Greer (2002) in order to reduce stereotypies in children. This procedure was applied to three children diagnosed with autism aged five, almost six and seven years, in order to reduce stereotypies when children watched movies. An A-B-A experimental design with three subjects was used for this research. The results showed a decrease in stereotypies in favor of appropriate behaviors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-194
Hartono Hartono ◽  
Denti Zaedatul Khaeriyah ◽  
Dina Lita Sari ◽  
Mila Ilfiana ◽  
Farida Nursyahidah

Set is an important topic to be mastered by students because it influences the development of mathematics in daily life. However, many students still have difficulty learning the topic. Therefore, it is necessary to design a learning trajectory using the appropriate approach, context, and media. This research resulted in the learning development using Sedekah Laut context to create meaningful learning and increase students' understanding of sets. The method used in this study was design research proposed by Gravemeijer & Cobb with three stages: preliminary design, experimental design (pilot experiments and teaching experiments), and retrospective analysis. However, this article only presented the results from the Preliminary design stage. The participants involved in this study were 7th-grade students of SMP Negeri 6 Semarang. The resulting hypothetical learning trajectory consists of a series of learning processes: observing context videos to find the concepts of sets, non-sets, empty sets, universal sets, and Venn diagrams; explaining the properties of the set; defining set operations; and solving problems related to sets.

E. Salinas-Cruz ◽  
O. Ruíz-Álvarez ◽  
J. Martínez-Sánchez ◽  
R. Reynoso-Santos ◽  
Pedro Cadena- Íñiguez ◽  

Objective: To determine the economically adequate fertilization dose for a castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) crop that improves the producer's benefits using the partial budgeting technique. Design / methodology / approach: The experiment was established at a site located 500 m from the Centro de Chiapas experimental field, with an altitude of 800 m. Two production factors were studied: nitrogen (40, 60, and 80) and phosphorus (20, 40, and 60) with three levels each. The treatments had nine combinations in a randomized complete block experimental design and four replications. Phenological and morphological variables, seed yield, and variable costs economic components were evaluated as a response. Results: With the average yields the obtained net benefits were determined; an adjustment of the benefits was made, and its dominance was determined. Four experiments were dominated, and five showed favorable profits for the producer. The 80-60-00 formulation had a return rate (RR) of 23 %. Conclusions: The 40-20-00, 40-40-00, 40-60-00, 80-40-00 and 80-60-00 formulations were dominant. The 80-60-00 formulation reported the highest RR, an increase in variable cost of US$9.64, like other doses of lower costs and benefits. For this dose, the net benefits increase was us$ 222.61.

2021 ◽  
Sandro José Paixão ◽  
Angélica Signor Mendes ◽  
Marco Antonio Possenti ◽  
Rosana Reffatti Sikorski ◽  
Marcos Martinez do Vale ◽  

Abstract It is well established that different light wavelengths affect broiler behavior. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of four light wavelengths on broiler behavior from 1 to 42-days of age. Birds were housed at a stocking density of 13 birds/m2, in 32 boxes of 1.56 m2. The experimental design was a completely randomized factorial of 4x2 (four colors x two sexes), with four replicates. Behavioral variables were accessed through cameras and observed in person thrice a week for 30 min per day in three different periods. Data was organized according to age groups and analyzed by data mining approach with the different light wavelengths as the classes. Natural behavior of male broilers reared in environments with green. Blue light was more relevant to the classification of male broilers behavior (96.9 and 96.9% accuracy and 0.8 and 1.0 of class precision of behavior classification, respectively). Blue and green lights affected the behavior of male broilers starting at 7-days of age, increasing the presence at the bird feeder, and reducing the idle period.

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