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Aquichan ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Callista Roy

The author assumes that practice became prominent in nursing theory in the first two decades of the 21st century. The end of the last century saw a burgeoning of literature on what is known as grand theories, their implementation, and evaluation. The era of healthcare quality research began when the Institute of Medicine issued a report on building a safer health system. At this time, the 21st-century literature in nursing took a distinct turn toward practice, influencing nursing theory. The movement to individualize care acted to further this influence. The nurse and patient relationship is the source of data for knowledge development. Established research approaches such as grounded theory and new approaches such as story theory were being used to create nursing theory from practice. Grand theory work moved to the development of instruments to measure the effects of theory in practice, such as that of Watson and Roy. The middle-range theories were developed and seen as closer to and easier to use in practice. The evidence-based practice movement also contributed to the role of theory in practice. These knowledge developments led to nurses having expanded roles in nursing.


Aquichan ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Miguel Ángel Fuentealba-Torres ◽  
Zita Lagos Sánchez ◽  
Vilanice Alves de Araújo Püschel ◽  
Denisse Cartagena

Systematic reviews are essential to developing evidence-based nursing practice. The JBI, formerly known as the Joanna Briggs Institute, has contributed significantly to research through technical training on reviews. Cochrane Living Systematic Reviews and Systematic Reviews of Measurement Instruments have been approaches recently used by the scientific community. The purpose of Living Systematic Reviews is to continuously update priority issues, while Systematic Reviews of Measurement Instruments condense evidence on the validity of measurement instruments. This article overviews the JBI Systematic Review approaches and provides critical information about Cochrane Living Systematic Reviews and Systematic Reviews of Measurement Instruments. The use of these new approaches is necessary to maintain the evidence-based nursing practice and advance nursing knowledge.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ammar Suhail

Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore patient’s perception of their disorder. Design/methodology/approach This study used a phenomenographical approach within a qualitative research paradigm. A total of 21 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were recruited for the study, and data were collected through open-ended face-to-face interviews. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed. The transcribed verbatim was analyzed for themes. Findings The themes developed reflected the patients’ perceptions about the disease process. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Knee OA is a degenerative disease, Knee OA is an age-related disease and Knee OA is caused by certain activities of daily living. The patient’s information varied and was limited to what had been provided by the health-care practitioner. The knowledge was more biomedical in orientation and was limited and not supported by the evidence. Research limitations/implications There is a need to provide evidence-based information that the patient must understand. Health-care providers must use a biopsychosocial framework to discuss the disease knowledge with patients. Practical implications This study helps us in identifying disease perceptions that can be used to design education programs for knee OA patients. It also highlights the need for delivering educational programs to knee OA patients. Originality/value This study lays a foundation for further research. To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first study to explore disease perceptions using a qualitative approach conducted among patients from a lower middle-income country.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Xinyu Wang ◽  
Jie Chen ◽  
Fang Peng ◽  
Jingtai Lu

This study focuses on clinical pathways guided by evidence-based medicine (EBM). With the clinical pathway as the center, the subjective and objective medical knowledge of medical staff are collected, and a clinical pathway management system guided by EBM is established through a unified process; user demand analysis; main considerations; implementation, evaluation, and monitoring of the clinical path; and dictionary maintenance, to help hospitals fully regulate medical behaviors. Next, the study displays the path access prompt box, area 1 management page, table management page, exit prompt box, mutation record page, doctor order interface, revocation of execution, and monitoring interface, and the system designed is compared with the Beijing Shankang Technology (ASK) clinical data management system in terms of user experience. The results showed that the reporting rate of medical adverse events in the system in this study was 0.21%, and the work efficiency was increased by 14%. In terms of users’ satisfaction, the hospital managers’ satisfaction was 84 ± 5.36%, and it was 95 ± 4.72% for medical staff and 88 ± 4.91% for system administrators, superior to the ASK system; the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). In conclusion, the clinical pathway information management system is in line with the working environment of medical staff, and the synchronous monitoring and management of medical quality are achieved through digital means, which can reduce the occurrence of medical adverse events and improve the work efficiency of medical staff.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fynn Bergmann ◽  
Rob Gray ◽  
Svenja Wachsmuth ◽  
Oliver Höner

Facilitating players' skill acquisition is a major challenge within sport coaches' work which should be supported by evidence-based recommendations outlining the most effective practice and coaching methods. This systematic review aimed at accumulating empirical knowledge on the influence of practice design and coaching behavior on perceptual-motor and perceptual-cognitive skill acquisition in soccer. A systematic search was carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines across the databases SPORTDiscus, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and Web of Science to identify soccer-specific intervention studies conducted in applied experimental settings (search date: 22nd November 2020). The systematic search yielded 8,295 distinct hits which underwent an independent screening process. Finally, 34 eligible articles, comprising of 35 individual studies, were identified and reviewed regarding their theoretical frameworks, methodological approaches and quality, as well as the interventions' effectiveness. These studies were classified into the following two groups: Eighteen studies investigated the theory-driven instructional approaches Differential Learning, Teaching Games for Understanding, and Non-linear Pedagogy. Another seventeen studies, most of them not grounded within a theoretical framework, examined specific aspects of practice task design or coaches' instructions. The Downs and Black checklist and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication were applied to assess the quality in reporting, risk of bias, and the quality of interventions' description. Based on these assessments, the included research was of moderate quality, however, with large differences across individual studies. The quantitative synthesis of results revealed empirical support for the effectiveness of coaching methodologies aiming at encouraging players' self-exploration within representative scenarios to promote technical and tactical skills. Nevertheless, “traditional” repetition-based approaches also achieved improvements with respect to players' technical outcomes, yet, their impact on match-play performance remains widely unexplored. In the light of the large methodological heterogeneity of the included studies (e.g., outcomes or control groups' practice activities), the presented results need to be interpreted by taking the respective intervention characteristics into account. Overall, the current evidence needs to be extended by theory-driven, high-quality studies within controlled experimental designs to allow more consolidated and evidence-based recommendations for coaches' work.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caio Fábio Schlechta Portella ◽  
Ricardo Ghelman ◽  
Veronica Abdala ◽  
Mariana Cabral Schveitzer ◽  
Rui Ferreira Afonso

Study Basis: This evidence map presents a summary of studies that addressed the effects of meditation on various clinical and health conditions. Meditation is a contemplative practice that has been used for the promotion of health, and the treatment of different conditions.Method: The study is based on the search of four electronic databases for the period 1994-November 2019 and includes systematic reviews, meta-analyses, meta-syntheses, and integrative reviews. 3iE evidence gap map was the methodology of choice, and AMSTAR 2 was used for the analyses. Tableau was used to graphically display the confidence level, number of reviews, health outcomes, and intervention effects.Results: This map encompasses 191 studies, with Mindfulness being the key word that retrieved the highest number of results. Several meditation techniques were evaluated in different contexts, and the confidence levels of 22 studies were high, 84 were moderate, and 82 were low. Two 2 meta-syntheses and 1 integrative review were also included. Most of the studies reported positive effects and a beneficial potential of the practice of meditation. Health outcomes were divided into five groups out of which mental health and vitality, and well-being and quality of life stood out with the largest number of studies.Conclusions: Meditation has been applied in different areas. This Evidence Map intends to be an easy visual tool to access valuable evidence-based information on this complementary therapy for patients, health professionals, and managers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alicia K. Matthews ◽  
Karriem S. Watson ◽  
Cherdsak Duang ◽  
Alana Steffen ◽  
Robert Winn

Background: Smoking rates among low-income patients are double those of the general population. Access to health care is an essential social determinant of health. Federally qualified health care centers (FQHC) are government-supported and community-based centers to increase access to health care for non-insured and underinsured patients. However, barriers to implementation impact adherence and sustainability of evidence-based smoking cessation within FQHC settings. To address this implementation barrier, our multi-disciplinary team proposes Mi QUIT CARE (Mile Square QUITCommunity-Access-Referral-Expansion) to establish the acceptability, feasibility, and capacity of an FQHC system to deliver an evidence-based and multi-level intervention to increase patient engagement with a state tobacco quitline.Methods: A mixed-method approach, rooted in an implementation science framework of RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance), will be used in this hybrid effectiveness-implementation design. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of a novel delivery system (patient portal) for increasing access to smoking cessation treatment. In preparation for a future randomized clinical trial of Mi QUIT CARE, we will conduct the following developmental research: (1) Examine the burden of tobacco among patient populations served by our partner FQHC, (2) Evaluate among FQHC patients and health care providers, knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to smoking cessation and our intervention components, (3) Evaluate the use of tailored communication strategies and patient navigation to increase patient portal uptake among patients, and (4) To test the acceptability, feasibility, and capacity of the partner FQHC to deliver Mi QUIT CARE.Discussion: This study provides a model for developing and implementing smoking and other health promotion interventions for low-income patients delivered via patient health portals. If successful, the intervention has important implications for addressing a critical social determinant of cancer and other tobacco-related morbidities.Trial Registration: U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials, NCT04827420, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04827420.


Author(s):  
Ramakanth R. Yakkanti ◽  
Neil V. Mohile ◽  
Wayne B. Cohen-Levy ◽  
Sagie Haziza ◽  
Matthew J. Lavelle ◽  
...  

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