Parkinson's Disease
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Bruno L. Santos-Lobato ◽  
Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi ◽  
Mariza Bortolanza ◽  
Ana Paula Ferranti Peti ◽  
Ângela V. Pimentel ◽  

2021 ◽  
M. H. Danielyan ◽  
K. V. Кarapetyan ◽  
K. A. Nebogova ◽  
O. H. Nazaryan ◽  
V. P. Khachatryan

Seung-Hwan Kwon ◽  
Sangjune Kim ◽  
A Yeong Park ◽  
Saebom Lee ◽  
Changdev Gorakshnath Gadhe ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  
LanLan Chen ◽  
Hongyu Zhou ◽  
Yao Xu ◽  
Hongying Zhang ◽  

Background: Studies on non-pharmacological strategies for improving gait performance and cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are of great significance. We aimed to investigate the effect of and mechanism underlying enriched rehabilitation as a potentially effective strategy for improving gait performance and cognition in early-stage PD.Methods: Forty participants with early-stage PD were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks (2 h/day, 6 days/week) of enriched rehabilitation (ER; n = 20; mean age, 66.14 ± 4.15 years; 45% men) or conventional rehabilitation (CR; n = 20; mean age 65.32 ± 4.23 years; 50% men). In addition, 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control (HC) group. We assessed the general motor function using the Unified PD Rating Scale—Part III (UPDRS-III) and gait performance during single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions pre- and post-intervention. Cognitive function assessments included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT), which were conducted pre- and post-intervention. We also investigated alteration in positive resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in participants with PD, mediated by ER, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Results: Compared with the HC group, PD participants in both ER and CR groups performed consistently poorer on cognitive and motor assessments. Significant improvements were observed in general motor function as assessed by the UPDRS-III in both ER and CR groups post-intervention. However, only the ER group showed improvements in gait parameters under ST and DT conditions post-intervention. Moreover, ER had a significant effect on cognition, which was reflected in increased MoCA, SDMT, and TMT scores post-intervention. MoCA, SDMT, and TMT scores were significantly different between ER and CR groups post-intervention. The RSFC analysis showed strengthened positive functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and other brain areas including the left insula and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) post-ER.Conclusion: Our findings indicated that ER could serve as a potentially effective therapy for early-stage PD for improving gait performance and cognitive function. The underlying mechanism based on fMRI involved strengthened RSFC between the left DLPFC and other brain areas (e.g., the left insula and LIFG).

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Tatiana V. Denisenko ◽  
Vladimir Gogvadze ◽  
Boris Zhivotovsky

AbstractIn order to maintain a functional mitochondrial network, cells have developed a quality control mechanism, namely mitophagy. This process can be induced through different pathways. The most studied is the so-called PINK1/Parkin pathway, which is associated with ubiquitylation of several mitochondrial proteins that were initially found to be related to Parkinson’s disease. Another type of mitophagy is known as receptor-mediated mitophagy, which includes proteins, such as BNIP3 and BNIP3L, also known as Nix. Through these two mechanisms, mitophagy fulfills its functions and maintains cellular homeostasis. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the mechanisms of mitophagy regulation and their interplay with cancer progression as well as anticancer treatment.

Grace K. Kellaher ◽  
Sidney T. Baudendistel ◽  
Ryan T. Roemmich ◽  
Matthew J. Terza ◽  
Chris J. Hass

2021 ◽  
Vol Volume 17 ◽  
pp. 3499-3508
Min Zhong ◽  
Xu Jiang ◽  
Sha Zhu ◽  
Ruxin Gu ◽  
Yu Bai ◽  

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