primary motor cortex
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Letizzia DALL’AGNOL ◽  
Alice Medeiros de SOUZA ◽  
Lilian Campos AMADEU ◽  
Fernanda Ishida CORRÊA

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a central nervous system neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the motor system, decreasing motor coordination, balance and generating tremors, and a progressive loss of everyday mobility, including walking. This study was conducted to verify the effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on balance, motor control, and the quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients. The patient received three treatments consisting of 10 sessions of 20 minutes each and a one-week interval between treatments. Active stimulation was applied on the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (D Sham-tDCS. DLPFC stimulation produced the best improvements in terms of motor control, balance, gait, and overall PD symptoms, as evaluated by different scales and questionnaires. As a result, active stimulation of the DLPFC produced superior outcomes and may contribute to treating Parkinson’s disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Tiffani J. Mungoven ◽  
Kasia K. Marciszewski ◽  
Vaughan G. Macefield ◽  
Paul M. Macey ◽  
Luke A. Henderson ◽  

Abstract Background The precise underlying mechanisms of migraine remain unknown. Although we have previously shown acute orofacial pain evoked changes within the brainstem of individuals with migraine, we do not know if these brainstem alterations are driven by changes in higher cortical regions. The aim of this investigation is to extend our previous investigation to determine if higher brain centers display altered activation patterns and connectivity in migraineurs during acute orofacial noxious stimuli. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 29 healthy controls and 25 migraineurs during the interictal and immediately (within 24-h) prior to migraine phases. We assessed activation of higher cortical areas during noxious orofacial heat stimulation using a thermode device and assessed whole scan and pain-related changes in connectivity. Results Despite similar overall pain intensity ratings between all three groups, migraineurs in the group immediately prior to migraine displayed greater activation of the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens, the contralateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and two clusters in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Reduced whole scan dlPFC [Z + 44] connectivity with cortical/subcortical and brainstem regions involved in pain modulation such as the putamen and primary motor cortex was demonstrated in migraineurs. Pain-related changes in connectivity of the dlPFC and the hypothalamus immediately prior to migraine was also found to be reduced with brainstem pain modulatory areas such as the rostral ventromedial medulla and dorsolateral pons. Conclusions These data reveal that the modulation of brainstem pain modulatory areas by higher cortical regions may be aberrant during pain and these alterations in this descending pain modulatory pathway manifests exclusively prior to the development of a migraine attack.

2022 ◽  
Nelly Seusing ◽  
Sebastian Strauss ◽  
Robert Fleischmann ◽  
Christina Nafz ◽  
Sergiu Groppa ◽  

Abstract ObjectiveThe role of ipsilateral descending motor pathways in voluntary movement of humans is still a matter of debate. Few studies have examined the task dependent modulation of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (iMEPs). Here, we determined the location of upper limb biceps brachii (BB) representation within the ipsilateral primary motor cortex. MethodsMR-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping of the dominant hemisphere was undertaken with twenty healthy participants who made tonic unilateral, bilateral homologous or bilateral antagonistic elbow flexion-extension voluntary contractions. Map center of gravity (CoG) and area for each BB were obtained. ResultsThe map CoG of the ipsilateral BB was located more anterior-laterally than those of the contralateral BB within the primary motor cortex. However different tasks had no effect on either the iMEP CoG location or the size. ConclusionOur data suggests that ipsilateral and contralateral MEP might originate in distinct adjacent neural populations in the primary motor cortex, independent of task dependence.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Giacomo Ariani ◽  
J Andrew Pruszynski ◽  
Jörn Diedrichsen

Motor planning plays a critical role in producing fast and accurate movement. Yet, the neural processes that occur in human primary motor and somatosensory cortex during planning, and how they relate to those during movement execution, remain poorly understood. Here we used 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed movement paradigm to study single finger movement planning and execution. The inclusion of no-go trials and variable delays allowed us to separate what are typically overlapping planning and execution brain responses. Although our univariate results show widespread deactivation during finger planning, multivariate pattern analysis revealed finger-specific activity patterns in contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which predicted the planned finger action. Surprisingly, these activity patterns were as informative as those found in contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). Control analyses ruled out the possibility that the detected information was an artifact of subthreshold movements during the preparatory delay. Furthermore, we observed that finger-specific activity patterns during planning were highly correlated to those during execution. These findings reveal that motor planning activates the specific S1 and M1 circuits that are engaged during the execution of a finger press, while activity in both regions is overall suppressed. We propose that preparatory states in S1 may improve movement control through changes in sensory processing or via direct influence of spinal motor neurons.

Takuya Morishita ◽  
Jan E. Timmermann ◽  
Robert Schulz ◽  
Friedhelm C. Hummel

AbstractInterhemispheric interactions demonstrate a crucial role for directing bimanual movement control. In humans, a well-established paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm enables to assess these interactions by means of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Previous studies have examined changes in IHI from the active to the resting primary motor cortex during unilateral muscle contractions; however, behavioral relevance of such changes is still inconclusive. In the present study, we evaluated two bimanual tasks, i.e., mirror activity and bimanual anti-phase tapping, to examine behavioral relevance of IHI for bimanual movement control within this behavioral framework. Two age groups (young and older) were evaluated as bimanual movement control demonstrates evident behavioral decline in older adults. Two types of IHI with differential underlying mechanisms were measured; IHI was tested at rest and during a motor task from the active to the resting primary motor cortex. Results demonstrate an association between behavior and short-latency IHI in the young group: larger short-latency IHI correlated with better bimanual movement control (i.e., less mirror activity and better bimanual anti-phase tapping). These results support the view that short-latency IHI represents a neurophysiological marker for the ability to suppress activity of the contralateral side, likely contributing to efficient bimanual movement control. This association was not observed in the older group, suggesting age-related functional changes of IHI. To determine underlying mechanisms of impaired bimanual movement control due to neurological disorders, it is crucial to have an in-depth understanding of age-related mechanisms to disentangle disorder-related mechanisms of impaired bimanual movement control from age-related ones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Ahren B. Fitzroy ◽  
Bethany J. Jones ◽  
Kyle A. Kainec ◽  
Jeehye Seo ◽  
Rebecca M. C. Spencer

Oscillatory neural activity during sleep, such as that in the delta and sigma bands, is important for motor learning consolidation. This activity is reduced with typical aging, and this reduction may contribute to aging-related declines in motor learning consolidation. Evidence suggests that brain regions involved in motor learning contribute to oscillatory neural activity during subsequent sleep. However, aging-related differences in regional contributions to sleep oscillatory activity following motor learning are unclear. To characterize these differences, we estimated the cortical sources of consolidation-related oscillatory activity using individual anatomical information in young and older adults during non-rapid eye movement sleep after motor learning and analyzed them in light of cortical thickness and pre-sleep functional brain activation. High-density electroencephalogram was recorded from young and older adults during a midday nap, following completion of a functional magnetic resonance imaged serial reaction time task as part of a larger experimental protocol. Sleep delta activity was reduced with age in a left-weighted motor cortical network, including premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and pre-supplementary motor area, as well as non-motor regions in parietal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortices. Sleep theta activity was reduced with age in a similar left-weighted motor network, and in non-motor prefrontal and middle cingulate regions. Sleep sigma activity was reduced with age in left primary motor cortex, in a non-motor right-weighted prefrontal-temporal network, and in cingulate regions. Cortical thinning mediated aging-related sigma reductions in lateral orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole, and partially mediated delta reductions in parahippocampal, fusiform, and lingual gyri. Putamen, caudate, and inferior parietal cortex activation prior to sleep predicted frontal and motor cortical contributions to sleep delta and theta activity in an age-moderated fashion, reflecting negative relationships in young adults and positive or absent relationships in older adults. Overall, these results support the local sleep hypothesis that brain regions active during learning contribute to consolidation-related neural activity during subsequent sleep and demonstrate that sleep oscillatory activity in these regions is reduced with aging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Alice Grazia ◽  
Michael Wimmer ◽  
Gernot R. Müller-Putz ◽  
Selina C. Wriessnegger

Introduction: Advantageous effects of biological motion (BM) detection, a low-perceptual mechanism that allows the rapid recognition and understanding of spatiotemporal characteristics of movement via salient kinematics information, can be amplified when combined with motor imagery (MI), i.e., the mental simulation of motor acts. According to Jeannerod’s neurostimulation theory, asynchronous firing and reduction of mu and beta rhythm oscillations, referred to as suppression over the sensorimotor area, are sensitive to both MI and action observation (AO) of BM. Yet, not many studies investigated the use of BM stimuli using combined AO-MI tasks. In this study, we assessed the neural response in the form of event-related synchronization and desynchronization (ERD/S) patterns following the observation of point-light-walkers and concordant MI, as compared to MI alone.Methods: Twenty right-handed healthy participants accomplished the experimental task by observing BM stimuli and subsequently performing the same movement using kinesthetic MI (walking, cycling, and jumping conditions). We recorded an electroencephalogram (EEG) with 32 channels and performed time-frequency analysis on alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (18–24 Hz) frequency bands during the MI task. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to test statistical significance among conditions and electrodes of interest.Results: The results revealed significant ERD/S patterns in the alpha frequency band between conditions and electrode positions. Post hoc comparisons showed significant differences between condition 1 (walking) and condition 3 (jumping) over the left primary motor cortex. For the beta band, a significantly less difference in ERD patterns (p < 0.01) was detected only between condition 3 (jumping) and condition 4 (reference).Discussion: Our results confirmed that the observation of BM combined with MI elicits a neural suppression, although just in the case of jumping. This is in line with previous findings of AO and MI (AOMI) eliciting a neural suppression for simulated whole-body movements. In the last years, increasing evidence started to support the integration of AOMI training as an adjuvant neurorehabilitation tool in Parkinson’s disease (PD).Conclusion: We concluded that using BM stimuli in AOMI training could be promising, as it promotes attention to kinematic features and imitative motor learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Alexandria Béland-Millar ◽  
Claude Messier

Learning or performing new behaviors requires significant neuronal signaling and is metabolically demanding. The metabolic cost of performing a behavior is mitigated by exposure and practice which result in diminished signaling and metabolic requirements. We examined the impact of novel and habituated wheel running, as well as effortful behaviors on the modulation of extracellular glucose and lactate using biosensors inserted in the primary motor cortex of mice. We found that motor behaviors produce increases in extracellular lactate and decreases in extracellular glucose in the primary motor cortex. These effects were modulated by experience, novelty and intensity of the behavior. The increase in extracellular lactate appears to be strongly associated with novelty of a behavior as well as the difficulty of performing a behavior. Our observations are consistent with the view that a main function of aerobic glycolysis is not to fuel the current neuronal activity but to sustain new bio-infrastructure as learning changes neural networks, chiefly through the shuttling of glucose derived carbons into the pentose phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of nucleotides.

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