Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a central nervous system neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the motor system, decreasing motor coordination, balance and generating tremors, and a progressive loss of everyday mobility, including walking. This study was conducted to verify the effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on balance, motor control, and the quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients. The patient received three treatments consisting of 10 sessions of 20 minutes each and a one-week interval between treatments. Active stimulation was applied on the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (D Sham-tDCS. DLPFC stimulation produced the best improvements in terms of motor control, balance, gait, and overall PD symptoms, as evaluated by different scales and questionnaires. As a result, active stimulation of the DLPFC produced superior outcomes and may contribute to treating Parkinson’s disease.
Abstract Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) inhibits serotonin reuptake selectively and is approved for major depressive disorders. This research investigated influence of DVS on modulating brain monoamine and oxidative stress in mice. The antiepileptic potential of DVS (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg/i.p.) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg) with i.p. route of administration, strychnine (STR; 75 mg/kg) with i.p. route, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg) with s.c. route and maximal electroshock MES-induced convulsion in mouse models. The activities of oxidative stress, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brains of PTZ-induced convulsive mice. Treatment with DVS increased the latency to develop siezures and declined mortalities in rodents against PTZ, STR and pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Results of MES-leaded siezures revealed that DVS reduced tonic hind limb extension duration and mortalities significantly. Brain, SOD, GSH and GABA level were significantly (P<0.01) increased and LPO reduced significantly (P<0.01) after DVS treatment. Furthermore, the DVS did not show any motor coordination signs in the rotarod test. We demonstrated that the role of DVS in convulsion genesis in mice under control condition and attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative damage.
Generally, adequate motor coordination (MC) ability is one among the critical factors for the overall development of children. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effects of equine-assistant activity (EAA) training on MC in children. For this purpose, MC test, specifically for children, was used to the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK), and a total of 100 children, particularly those in 8 to 10 age, were equally separated into equine-assistant activity group (EAAG) and control group (CG), respectively. The EAAG group has attended a 14-week EAA training program, while the CG joined in physical education activity once per week. The experimental results have indicated that four indices of KTK test (i.e., backward walk [WB], height jump [HH], jumping sideways [JS] and moving sideways [MS], and motor quotient [MQ] score) showed significant differences (
) after a 14-week EAA training. Furthermore, the indices of physical fitness test, standing long jump (SLJ), and sit and reach (SAR) showed significant differences (
), but the handgrip (HG) increased slightly without significant difference (
) after a 14-week EAA training. In conclusion, there were improvements in MC, lower limb strength, and flexibility by EAAG for those who participated in a 14-week EAA training, and this study has demonstrated the effectiveness of the KTK assessment of MC in children 8 to 10 years.
Developmental dysregulation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) alters neuronal migration, differentiation, and behavior and contributes to the psychopathology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The current study is aimed at identifying how cell-specific loss of D2Rs in the cerebral cortex may impact neurobehavioral and cellular development, in order to better understand the roles of this receptor in cortical circuit formation and brain disorders. We deleted D2R from developing cortical GABAergic interneurons (Nkx2.1-Cre) or from developing telencephalic glutamatergic neurons (Emx1-Cre). Conditional knockouts (cKO) from both lines, Drd2fl/fl, Nkx2.1-Cre+ (referred to as GABA-D2R-cKO mice) or Drd2fl/fl, Emx1-Cre+ (referred to as Glu-D2R-cKO mice), exhibited no differences in simple tests of anxiety-related or depression-related behaviors, or spatial or nonspatial working memory. Both GABA-D2R-cKO and Glu-D2R-cKO mice also had normal basal locomotor activity, but GABA-D2R-cKO mice expressed blunted locomotor responses to the psychotomimetic drug MK-801. GABA-D2R-cKO mice exhibited improved motor coordination on a rotarod whereas Glu-D2R-cKO mice were normal. GABA-D2R-cKO mice also exhibited spatial learning deficits without changes in reversal learning on a Barnes maze. At the cellular level, we observed an increase in PV+ cells in the frontal cortex of GABA-D2R-cKO mice and no noticeable changes in Glu-D2R-cKO mice. These data point toward unique and distinct roles for D2Rs within excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the regulation of behavior and interneuron development, and suggest that location-biased D2R pharmacology may be clinically advantageous to achieve higher efficacy and help avoid unwanted effects.
Our subjective visual experiences involve complex interaction between our eyes, our brain, and the surrounding world. It gives us the sense of sight, color, stereopsis, distance, pattern recognition, motor coordination, and more. The increasing ubiquity of gaze-aware technology brings with it the ability to track gaze and pupil measures with varying degrees of fidelity. With this in mind, a review that considers the various gaze measures becomes increasingly relevant, especially considering our ability to make sense of these signals given different spatio-temporal sampling capacities. In this paper, we selectively review prior work on eye movements and pupil measures. We first describe the main oculomotor events studied in the literature, and their characteristics exploited by different measures. Next, we review various eye movement and pupil measures from prior literature. Finally, we discuss our observations based on applications of these measures, the benefits and practical challenges involving these measures, and our recommendations on future eye-tracking research directions.
AbstractBehavioral measurements in mice are critical tools used to evaluate the effects of interventions. Whilst mice are nocturnal animals, many studies conduct behavioral tests during the day. To better understand the effects of diurnal rhythm on mouse behaviors, we compared the results from behavioral tests conducted in the active and inactive phases. C57BL/6 mice were used in this study; we focus on sensorimotor performance, anxiety, learning and memory. Overall, our results show mice exhibit slightly higher cutaneous sensitivity, better long-term contextual memory, and a greater active avoidance escape response during the active phase. We did not observe significant differences in motor coordination, anxiety, or spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, apart from the elevated-O-maze, there was no remarkable sex effect among these tests. This study provides information on the effects of different diurnal phases on types of behavior and demonstrates the importance of the circadian cycle on learning and memory. Although we did not detect differences in anxiety and spatial learning/memory, diurnal rhythm may interact with other factors to influence these behaviors.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the lower limb joint motor coordination of para-athletes during running motion from frequency characteristics and to propose this as a method for evaluating their performance. The subject used was a 43-year-old male para-athlete who had suffered a left cerebral infarction. Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, the angles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were measured during 1 min of running at a speed of 8 km/h on a treadmill. Nine inter- and intra-limb joint angle pairs were analyzed by coherence and phase analyses. The main characteristic of the stroke patient was that there were joint pairs with absent or increased coherence peaks in the high-frequency band above 4 Hz that were not found in healthy subjects. Interestingly, these features were also observed on the non-paralyzed side. Furthermore, a phase analysis showed different phase differences between the joint motions of the stroke patient and healthy subjects in some joint pairs. Thus, we concluded there was a widespread functional impairment of joint motion in the stroke patient that has not been revealed by conventional methods. The coherence analysis of joint motion may be useful for identifying joint motion problems in para-athletes.
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the injured body regions that elite
Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers suffered from and to determine the
importance of injuries. 41 Freestyle and 51 Greco-Roman wrestlers, who were
practicing in Turkish National Wrestling Team camps, participated in this study.
‘Chi Square’ and student t tests were used in statistical
analyses. When examined injury status and body regions distribution between
Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers, significant difference was found in head
and trunk injuries according to wrestling styles (p<0.05). No difference
was found in upper/lower extremities and lesion/scrape and
friction burns status of the wrestlers according to wrestling style
(p>0.05). There was significant difference in trunk and upper extremity
injuries with respect to weight category (p<0.05 and p<0.001).
Significant difference was also found in nose injuries according to wrestling
styles (p<0.05). When examined wrestling style and upper extremity
injuries according to the number of injuries, there was found significant
difference between two styles in muscle injuries, finger and wrist injuries
(p<0.05). The difference between toe injuries in respect to the
wrestling style was statistically significant (p<0.05). Results:
Greco-Roman wrestlers experienced more injuries in trunk, head and nose compared
to Freestyle wrestlers. Trunk, lower and upper extremity injuries varied
depending on weight categories. Neck, back, lumbar and chest injuries were more
common in Greco-Roman wrestlers. Freestyle wrestlers were more vulnerable to
muscle injuries while Greco-Roman wrestlers were more vulnerable to finger and
wrist injuries. It is recommended to improve some abilities excellently such as
aerobic power, strength, balance and neuro-motor coordination in wrestling.
Techniques should be taught well to the wrestlers, most risky extremities for
injury have to be applied extra training and these extremities should be
protected from injuries by several tapes, bandages or gears during exercise.
Freestyle wrestlers ought to be more careful in diving move. Using ear protector
in addition to preventive measures can be recommended during training in order
to prevent temporal bone fractures and swellings.