Bottom Up
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2021 ◽  
S. Gunathilake ◽  
T. Ramachandra ◽  
U.G.D. Madushika ◽  

The construction industry is one of the major contributors that emits carbon into the environment. When considering the carbon emission in the local context, even though there are Input-Output Tables (IOTs) that applies to all types of industries in Sri Lanka, there seems to be limited focuses on IOTs specifically relating to the construction activities which is vital for the need due to its outstanding contribution to the carbon footprint of Sri Lanka. Hence, this study aims to calculate the carbon footprint construction activities in Sri Lanka using IOT with a bottom-up approach. The required data were extracted from published documents of Survey of Construction Industry by Census and Statistics, and The Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) database of UK. Carbon footprint of construction activities were calculated using IOT with a bottom-up approach. The analysis revealed that the road and railway sector have the highest contribution of 48% to the monetary value of the construction industry meanwhile it accounts for 44% of the highest carbon emission to the atmosphere in the year 2020. Subsequently, activities related to non-residential residential, and utilities contribute to 20%, 15%, and 12% of total carbon emission respectively. In terms of construction materials, cement-based activities (59%) were the highest contributor while rubble and metal-based (23%), and iron and steel-based activities (17%) were next level contributors to the carbon emission due to construction. The analysis concluded that the as the initiatives, public sector projects including road and railway sector and utilities should integrate more sustainable construction practices as they are responsible for more than 50% of carbon emission.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13340
Deborah Agostino ◽  
Marco Brambilla ◽  
Silvio Pavanetto ◽  
Paola Riva

In the cultural tourism field, there has been an increasing interest in adopting data-driven approaches that are aimed at measuring the service quality dimensions through online reviews. To date, studies measuring quality dimensions in cultural tourism settings through content analysis of online user-generated reviews are mainly based on manual approaches. When the content analysis is automated, these studies do not compare different analytical approaches. Our paper enters this field by comparing two different automated content analysis approaches to evaluate which of the two is more adequate for assessing the quality dimensions through user-generated reviews in an empirical setting of 100 Italian museums. Specifically, we compare a ‘top-down’ content analysis approach that is based on a supervised classification built on policy makers’ guidelines and a ‘bottom-up’ approach that is based on an unsupervised topic model of the online words of reviewers. The resulting museum quality dimensions are compared, showing that the ‘bottom-up’ approach reveals additional quality dimensions compared with those obtained through the ‘top-down’ approach. The misalignment of the results of the ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches to quality evaluation for museums enhances the critical discussion on the contribution that data analytics can offer to support decision making in cultural tourism.

Samson Yuen ◽  
Kin-long Tong

Abstract Collective identity is a key catalyst of protest mobilization. How does collective identity come into existence among strangers with diverse backgrounds, especially in movements without a centralized leadership? Although collective identity is often seen as something constructed by movement organizations or out of established networks, we describe a more bottom-up and decentralized process in which movement collective identity is created through the horizontal mobilization of intermediate identities, which leverage pre-existing social identifications to induce commitment among individuals. Focusing on Hong Kong's Anti-Extradition Bill Movement of 2019, we argue that online petitions against the controversial bill created intermediate group identities among myriad social groups, such as alumni, professions, hobby groups, and residential communities. These intermediate identities provided rich discursive resources for previously disconnected individuals to collectively perceive the threat of the bill and see the obligation to act, which, in turn, shaped a strong collective identity early on in the protests. Our findings may help contribute to a more nuanced understanding of collective identity formation in contemporary leaderless movements.

Ye Tao ◽  
Huang-Fei Qin ◽  
Zhi-Rong Hu ◽  
Zhao-Ting Pan ◽  
Peng-Fei Yao ◽  

Sophisticated aggregation assembly is challenging in assembly chemistry. Monitoring the assembly process helps to understand the assembly mechanism and the create new building blocks. A two-dimensional (2D) cluster-based coordination polymer...

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Lucia Piani ◽  
Matteo Carzedda ◽  
Nadia Carestiato

AbstractClimate change, ecological challenges, and economic and social crises imply paradigmatic and structural innovations. In the effort to drive transition toward sustainability, local communities often take the lead, mobilize support, and organize initiatives based on the principles of solidarity economy. Our study presents a qualitative evaluation and comparison of three local bottom-up initiatives from Friuli Venezia Giulia, a Northern Italian region, each following alternative and unique models of production and consumption of wheat and flour. The reconstruction of the transition paths of the experiences, together with documental analysis and interviews, allowed us to deduce the influence of alternative approaches and subsequent degree of effectiveness in building a community and driving it toward sustainability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (4) ◽  
pp. 54-73
Paul Shields

Early propaganda studies in authoritarian countries argue that state media works to legitimize the regime through indoctrination and persuasion. However, recent scholarship shows that citizens in authoritarian countries—in states like China, Syria, Russia, and Kazakhstan—can be unconvinced by state propaganda. How, then, does the way in which citizens experience unconvincing propaganda shape their political beliefs? How might unpersuasive propaganda contribute to authoritarian stability? Given the lack of alternative theories of propaganda, this article proposes a new hypothesis based on a reception study that interviewed 24 Russian citizens from Krasnoiarsk Krai after they watched items from Russian state television. The article theorizes that unconvincing state propaganda in Russia can reinforce a preexisting cynical attitude toward politics—an attitude that makes the collective action necessary for bottom-up reform hard to contemplate, let alone organize in an authoritarian context.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Riffat Blouch ◽  
Muhammad Majid Khan ◽  
Wajid Shakeel

Purpose Drawing on the concept of resource-based theory of the firm; the purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of firms’ strategic approaches on the firm performance via indirect effect using a multilevel, bottom-up approach. Design/methodology/approach Using the survey method, the present study obtains data from 104 diversified manufacturing firms and analyzes the bottom-up effect of firms’ strategic approach on efficient resource allocation using Mplus. Findings Given the prevailing conditions, the study found that the motive of most firms is growth rather than risk mitigation or collaboration in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, the study found that the bottom-level employees’ information asymmetry has a significant impact on the strategic resource allocation decision, which can lead to resource allocation inefficiency. Research limitations/implications Despite making a unique contribution, the present study has few limitations requiring researchers’ attention to in the forthcoming. These include a low amount of data, self-reporting technique and failure to include all the possible reason that could cause resource allocation inefficiency. Practical implications The present research has potential applications for managers of the manufacturing industry. First, the study alerts managers about the challenges of resource allocation. At the same time, this study provides critical implication for managing bottom-level employees. Originality/value The current study has made a sizable impression in the literature of resource-based theory of the firm by recommending a model that augments the theoretical foundation of strategic management of the firm. So, closely considering these insights would be helping for the firms for allocating resources efficiently in the manufacturing industry.

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