cell fate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 276-281
Marta M Maciel ◽  
Tiago R Correia ◽  
Mariana Henriques ◽  
João F Mano

2022 ◽  
Axel H Newton ◽  
Sarah M Williams ◽  
Andrew T Major ◽  
Craig A Smith

The lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) is a transient embryonic tissue that gives rise to a diverse range of mature cell types, including the cardiovascular system, the urogenital system, endoskeleton of the limbs, and mesenchyme of the gut. While the genetic processes that drive development of these tissues are well defined, the early cell fate choices underlying LPM development and specification are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize single-cell transcriptomics to define cell lineage specification during development of the anterior LPM and the forelimb field in the chicken embryo. We identify the molecular pathways directing differentiation of the aLPM towards a somatic or splanchnic cell fate, and subsequent emergence of the forelimb mesenchyme. We establish the first transcriptional atlas of progenitor, transitional and mature cell types throughout the early forelimb field and uncover the global signalling pathways which are active during LPM differentiation and forelimb initiation. Specification of the somatic and splanchnic LPM from undifferentiated mesoderm utilizes distinct signalling pathways and involves shared repression of early mesodermal markers, followed by activation of lineage-specific gene modules. We identify rapid activation of the transcription factor TWIST1 in the somatic LPM preceding activation of known limb initiation genes, such as TBX5, which plays a likely role in epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition of the limb bud mesenchyme. Furthermore, development of the somatic LPM and limb is dependent on ectodermal BMP signalling, where BMP antagonism reduces expression of key somatic LPM and limb genes to inhibit formation of the limb bud mesenchyme. Together, these findings provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that drive fate cell choices during specification of the aLPM and forelimb initiation.

2022 ◽  
Xigang Liu ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Yanyun Pan ◽  
Lin Guo ◽  

In cell-cell communication, non-cell-autonomous transcription factors play vital roles in controlling plant stem cell fate. We previously reported that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3 (ARF3), a member of the ARF family with critical roles in floral meristem maintenance and determinacy, has a distinct accumulation pattern that differs from the expression domain of its encoding gene in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). However, the biological meaning of this difference is obscure. Here, we demonstrate that ARF3 expression is mainly activated at the periphery of the SAM by auxin, where ARF3 cell-autonomously regulates the expression of meristem-organ boundary-specific genes, such as CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1-3 (CUC1-3), BLADE ON PETIOLE1-2 (BOP1-2) and TARGETS UNDER ETTIN CONTROL3 (TEC3) to determine organ patterning. We also show that ARF3 is translocated into the organizing center, where it represses cytokinin activity and WUSCHEL expression to regulate meristem activity non-cell-autonomously. Therefore, ARF3 acts as a molecular link that mediates the interaction of auxin and cytokinin signaling in the SAM while coordinating the balance between meristem maintenance and organogenesis. Our findings reveal an ARF3-mediated coordination mechanism through cell-cell communication in dynamic SAM maintenance.

2022 ◽  
Marius Lange ◽  
Volker Bergen ◽  
Michal Klein ◽  
Manu Setty ◽  
Bernhard Reuter ◽  

AbstractComputational trajectory inference enables the reconstruction of cell state dynamics from single-cell RNA sequencing experiments. However, trajectory inference requires that the direction of a biological process is known, largely limiting its application to differentiating systems in normal development. Here, we present CellRank (https://cellrank.org) for single-cell fate mapping in diverse scenarios, including regeneration, reprogramming and disease, for which direction is unknown. Our approach combines the robustness of trajectory inference with directional information from RNA velocity, taking into account the gradual and stochastic nature of cellular fate decisions, as well as uncertainty in velocity vectors. On pancreas development data, CellRank automatically detects initial, intermediate and terminal populations, predicts fate potentials and visualizes continuous gene expression trends along individual lineages. Applied to lineage-traced cellular reprogramming data, predicted fate probabilities correctly recover reprogramming outcomes. CellRank also predicts a new dedifferentiation trajectory during postinjury lung regeneration, including previously unknown intermediate cell states, which we confirm experimentally.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 829
Martina Del Gaizo ◽  
Ilaria Sergio ◽  
Sara Lazzari ◽  
Samantha Cialfi ◽  
Maria Pelullo ◽  

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is an aggressive haematological tumour driven by the malignant transformation and expansion of B-cell (B-ALL) or T-cell (T-ALL) progenitors. The evolution of T-ALL pathogenesis encompasses different master developmental pathways, including the main role played by Notch in cell fate choices during tissue differentiation. Recently, a growing body of evidence has highlighted epigenetic changes, particularly the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), as a critical molecular mechanism to sustain T-ALL. The immune response is emerging as key factor in the complex multistep process of cancer but the role of miRNAs in anti-leukaemia response remains elusive. In this review we analyse the available literature on miRNAs as tuners of the immune response in T-ALL, focusing on their role in Natural Killer, T, T-regulatory and Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. A better understanding of this molecular crosstalk may provide the basis for the development of potential immunotherapeutic strategies in the leukemia field.

PLoS Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e3001514
Eduardo P. C. Rocha ◽  
David Bikard

Prokaryotes have numerous mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that mediate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between cells. These elements can be costly, even deadly, and cells use numerous defense systems to filter, control, or inactivate them. Recent studies have shown that prophages, conjugative elements, their parasites (phage satellites and mobilizable elements), and other poorly described MGEs encode defense systems homologous to those of bacteria. These constitute a significant fraction of the repertoire of cellular defense genes. As components of MGEs, these defense systems have presumably evolved to provide them, not the cell, adaptive functions. While the interests of the host and MGEs are aligned when they face a common threat such as an infection by a virulent phage, defensive functions carried by MGEs might also play more selfish roles to fend off other antagonistic MGEs or to ensure their maintenance in the cell. MGEs are eventually lost from the surviving host genomes by mutational processes and their defense systems can be co-opted when they provide an advantage to the cell. The abundance of defense systems in MGEs thus sheds new light on the role, effect, and fate of the so-called “cellular defense systems,” whereby they are not only merely microbial defensive weapons in a 2-partner arms race, but also tools of intragenomic conflict between multiple genetic elements with divergent interests that shape cell fate and gene flow at the population level.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Jasmina Al-Mousawi ◽  
Ana Boskovic

Dmitri Serjanov ◽  
Galina Bachay ◽  
Dale D. Hunter ◽  
William J. Brunken

Vertebrate retinal development follows a highly stereotyped pattern, in which the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) give rise to all retinal types in a conserved temporal sequence. Ensuring the proper control over RPC cell cycle exit and re-entry is, therefore, crucially important for the generation of properly functioning retina. In this study, we demonstrate that laminins, indispensible ECM components, at the retinal surface, regulate the mechanisms determining whether RPCs generate proliferative or post-mitotic progeny. In vivo deletion of laminin β2 in mice resulted in disturbing the RPC cell cycle dynamics, and premature cell cycle exit. Specifically, the RPC S-phase is shortened, with increased numbers of cells present in its late stages. This is followed by an accelerated G2-phase, leading to faster M-phase entry. Finally, the M-phase is extended, with RPCs dwelling longer in prophase. Addition of exogenous β2-containing laminins to laminin β2-deficient retinal explants restored the appropriate RPC cell cycle dynamics, as well as S and M-phase progression, leading to proper cell cycle re-entry. Moreover, we show that disruption of dystroglycan, a laminin receptor, phenocopies the laminin β2 deletion cell cycle phenotype. Together, our findings suggest that dystroglycan-mediated ECM signaling plays a critical role in regulating the RPC cell cycle dynamics, and the ensuing cell fate decisions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Weilin Zhu ◽  
Chunling Yang ◽  
Xiuli Chen ◽  
Qingyun Liu ◽  
Qiangyong Li ◽  

To characterize the cold tolerance mechanism of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of ∼5185 hepatopancreas cells from cold-tolerant (Lv-T) and common (Lv-C) L. vannamei at preferred and low temperatures (28°C and 10°C, respectively). The cells fell into 10 clusters and 4 cell types: embryonic, resorptive, blister-like, and fibrillar. We identified differentially expressed genes between Lv-T and Lv-C, which were mainly associated with the terms “immune system,” “cytoskeleton,” “antioxidant system,” “digestive enzyme,” and “detoxification,” as well as the pathways “metabolic pathways of oxidative phosphorylation,” “metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450,” “chemical carcinogenesis,” “drug metabolism-cytochrome P450,” and “fatty acid metabolism.” Reconstruction of fibrillar cell trajectories showed that, under low temperature stress, hepatopancreas cells had two distinct fates, cell fate 1 and cell fate 2. Cell fate 1 was mainly involved in signal transduction and sensory organ development. Cell fate 2 was mainly involved in metabolic processes. This study preliminarily clarifies the molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance in L. vannamei, which will be useful for the breeding of shrimp with greater cold tolerance.

2022 ◽  
Kimberly N. Bekas ◽  
Bryan T. Phillips

Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental mechanism of developmental cell fate specification and adult tissue homeostasis. In C. elegans, the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry (WβA) pathway regulates ACDs throughout embryonic and larval development. Under control of Wnt ligand-induced polarity, the transcription factor TCF/POP-1 functions with the coactivator beta-catenin/SYS-1 to activate gene expression in the signaled cell or, in absence of the coactivator, to repress Wnt target genes in the nascent unsignaled daughter cell. To date, a broad investigation of Groucho function in WβA is lacking and the function of the short Groucho AES homolog, lsy-22 has only been evaluated in C. elegans neuronal cell fate decisions. Further, there is conflicting evidence showing TCF utilizing Groucho-mediated repression may be either aided or repressed by addition of AES subfamily of Groucho proteins. Here we demonstrate a genetic interaction between Groucho repressors and TCF/POP-1 in ACDs in the somatic gonad, the seam hypodermal stem cell lineage and the early embryo. Specifically, in the somatic gonad lineage, the signaled cell fate increases after individual and double Groucho loss of function, representing the first demonstration of Groucho function in wild-type WβA ACD. Further, WβA target gene misexpression occurs at a higher rate than DTC fate changes, suggesting derepression generates an intermediate cell fate. In seam cell ACD, loss of Groucho unc-37 or Groucho-like lsy-22 in a pop-1(RNAi) hypomorphic background enhances a pop-1 seam cell expansion and target gene misregulation. Moreover, while POP-1 depletion in lsy-22 null mutants yielded an expected increase in seam cells we observed a surprising seam cell decrease in the unc-37 null subjected to POP-1 depletion. This phenotype may be due to UNC-37 regulation of pop-1 expression in this tissue since we find misregulation of POP-1 in unc-37 mutants. Lastly, Groucho functions in embryonic endoderm development since we observe ectopic endoderm target gene expression in lsy-22(ot244) heterozygotes and unc-37(tm4649) heterozygotes subjected to intermediate levels of hda-1(RNAi). Together, these data indicate Groucho repressor modulation of cell fate via regulation of POP-1/TCF repression is widespread in asymmetric cell fate decisions and suggests a novel role of LSY-22 as a bona fide TCF repressor. As AES Grouchos are well-conserved, our model of combinatorial TCF repression by both Gro/TLE and AES warrants further investigation. 

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