audit and feedback
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PEDIATRICS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Olivia Ostrow ◽  
Deena Savlov ◽  
Susan E. Richardson ◽  
Jeremy N. Friedman

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Viral respiratory infections are common in children, and practice guidelines do not recommend routine testing for typical viral illnesses. Despite results often not impacting care, nasopharyngeal swabs for viral testing are frequently performed and are an uncomfortable procedure. The aim of this initiative was to decrease unnecessary respiratory viral testing (RVT) in the emergency department (ED) and the pediatric medicine wards (PMWs) by 50% and 25%, respectively, over 36 months. METHODS: An expert panel reviewed published guidelines and appropriate evidence to formulate an RVT pathway using plan-do-study-act cycles. A multifaceted improvement strategy was developed that included implementing 2 newer, more effective tests when testing was deemed necessary; electronic order modifications with force functions; audit and feedback; and education. By using statistical process control charts, the outcomes analyzed were the percentage of RVT ordered in the ED and the rate of RVT ordered on the PMWs. Balancing measures included return visits leading to admission and inpatient viral nosocomial outbreaks. RESULTS: The RVT rate decreased from a mean of 3.0% to 0.5% of ED visits and from 44.3 to 30.1 per 1000 patient days on the PMWs and was sustained throughout the study. Even when accounting for the new rapid influenza test available in the ED, a 50% decrease in overall ED RVT was still achieved without any significant impact on return visits leading to admission or inpatient nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Through implementation of a standardized, electronically integrated RVT pathway, a decrease in unnecessary RVT was successfully achieved. Audit and feedback, reminders, and biannual education all supported long-term sustainability of this initiative.


10.2196/33873 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e33873
Author(s):  
Andre Q Andrade ◽  
Jean-Pierre Calabretto ◽  
Nicole L Pratt ◽  
Lisa M Kalisch-Ellett ◽  
Gizat M Kassie ◽  
...  

Background Digital technologies can enable rapid targeted delivery of audit and feedback interventions at scale. Few studies have evaluated how mode of delivery affects clinical professional behavior change and none have assessed the feasibility of such an initiative at a national scale. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effect of audit and feedback by digital versus postal (letter) mode of delivery on primary care physician behavior. Methods This study was developed as part of the Veterans’ Medicines Advice and Therapeutics Education Services (MATES) program, an intervention funded by the Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs that provides targeted education and patient-specific audit with feedback to Australian general practitioners, as well as educational material to veterans and other health professionals. We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention to reduce inappropriate gabapentinoid prescription, comparing digital and postal mode of delivery. All veteran patients targeted also received an educational intervention (postal delivery). Efficacy was measured using a linear mixed-effects model as the average number of gabapentinoid prescriptions standardized by defined daily dose (individual level), and number of veterans visiting a psychologist in the 6 and 12 months following the intervention. Results The trial involved 2552 general practitioners in Australia and took place in March 2020. Both intervention groups had a significant reduction in total gabapentinoid prescription by the end of the study period (digital: mean reduction of 11.2%, P=.004; postal: mean reduction of 11.2%, P=.001). We found no difference between digital and postal mode of delivery in reduction of gabapentinoid prescriptions at 12 months (digital: –0.058, postal: –0.058, P=.98). Digital delivery increased initiations to psychologists at 12 months (digital: 3.8%, postal: 2.0%, P=.02). Conclusions Our digitally delivered professional behavior change intervention was feasible, had comparable effectiveness to the postal intervention with regard to changes in medicine use, and had increased effectiveness with regard to referrals to a psychologist. Given the logistical benefits of digital delivery in nationwide programs, the results encourage exploration of this mode in future interventions.


Author(s):  
Katherine Christianson ◽  
Alexandra Kalinowski ◽  
Sarah Bauer ◽  
Yitong Liu ◽  
Lauren Titus ◽  
...  

OBJECTIVE: Clear communication about discharge criteria with families and the interprofessional team is essential for efficient transitions of care. Our aim was to increase the percentage of pediatric hospital medicine patient- and family-centered rounds (PFCR) that included discharge criteria discussion from a baseline mean of 32% to 75% over 1 year. METHODS: We used the Model for Improvement to conduct a quality improvement initiative at a tertiary pediatric academic medical center. Interventions tested included (1) rationale sharing, (2) PFCR checklist modification, (3) electronic discharge SmartForms, (4) data audit and feedback and (5) discharge criteria standardization. The outcome measure was the percentage of observed PFCR with discharge criteria discussed. Process measure was the percentage of PHM patients with criteria documented. Balancing measures were rounds length, length of stay, and readmission rates. Statistical process control charts assessed the impact of interventions. RESULTS: We observed 700 PFCR (68 baseline PFCR from July to August 2019 and 632 intervention period PFCR from November 2019 to June 2021). At baseline, discharge was discussed during 32% of PFCR. After rationale sharing, checklist modification, and criteria standardization, this increased to 90%, indicating special cause variation. The improvement has been sustained for 10 months. At baseline, there was no centralized location to document discharge criteria. After development of the SmartForm, 21% of patients had criteria documented. After criteria standardization for common diagnoses, this increased to 71%. Rounds length, length of stay, and readmission rates remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Using quality improvement methodology, we successfully increased verbal discussions of discharge criteria during PFCR without prolonging rounds length.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e051513
Author(s):  
Erik M. von Meyenfeldt ◽  
Femke van Nassau ◽  
Carlijn T I de Betue ◽  
L Barberio ◽  
Wilhelmina H Schreurs ◽  
...  

ObjectivesThis study aims to elucidate determinants for succesful implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Thoracic Surgery (ERATS) protocol for perioperative care for surgical lung cancer patients in the Netherlands.SettingLung cancer operations are performed in both academic and regional hospitals, either by cardiothoracic or general thoracic surgeons. Limiting the impact of these operations by optimising and standardising perioperative care with the ERATS protocol is thought to enable reduction in length of stay, complications and costs.ParticipantsA broad spectrum of stakeholders in perioperative care for patients with lung resection participated in this study, ranging from patient representatives, healthcare professionals to an insurance company representative.InterventionsSemistructured interviews (N=14) were conducted with the stakeholders (N=18). The interviews were conducted one on one by telephone and two times, face to face, in small groups. Verbatim transcriptions of these interviews were coded for the purpose of thematic analysis.Outcome measuresDeterminants for successful implementation of the ERATS protocol in the Netherlands.ResultsSeveral determinants correspond with previous publications: having a multidisciplinary team, leadership from a senior clinician and support from an ERAS-coordinator as facilitators; lack of feedback on performance and absence of management support as barriers. Our study underscores the potential detrimental effect of inconsistent communication, the lack of support in the transition from hospital to home and the barrier posed by lack of accessible audit data.ConclusionsBased on a structured problem analysis among a wide selection of stakeholders, this study provides a solid basis for choosing adequate implementation strategies to introduce the ERATS protocol in the Netherlands. Emphasis on consistent and sufficient communication, support in the transition from hospital to home and adequate audit and feedback data, in addition to established implementation strategies for ERAS-type programmes, will enable a tailored approach to implementation of ERATS in the Dutch context.


Author(s):  
Lesley J.J. Soril ◽  
Tom W. Noseworthy ◽  
Derek R. Townsend ◽  
Sean M. Bagshaw ◽  
Henry T. Stelfox ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Health technology reassessment (HTR) is a process to manage existing health technologies to ensure ongoing optimal use. A model to guide HTR was developed; however, there is limited practical experience. This paper addresses this knowledge gap through the completion of a multi-phase HTR of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective The HTR consisted of three phases and here we report on the final phase: the development, implementation, and evaluation of behavior change interventions aimed at addressing inappropriate RBC transfusions in an ICU. Methods The interventions, comprised of group education and audit and feedback, were co-designed and implemented with clinical leaders. The intervention was evaluated through a controlled before-and-after pilot feasibility study. The primary outcome was the proportion of potentially inappropriate RBC transfusions (i.e., with a pre-transfusion hemoglobin of 70 g/L or more). Results There was marked variability in the monthly proportion of potentially inappropriate RBC transfusions. Relative to the pre-intervention phase, there was no significant difference in the proportion of potentially inappropriate RBC transfusions post-intervention. Lessons from this work include the importance of early and meaningful engagement of clinical leaders; tailoring the intervention modalities; and, efficient access to data through an electronic clinical information system. Conclusions It was feasible to design, implement, and evaluate a tailored, multi-modal behavior change intervention in this small-scale pilot study. However, early evaluation of the intervention revealed no change in technology use leading to reflection on the important question of how the HTR model needs to be improved.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Westyn Branch-Elliman ◽  
Rebecca Lamkin ◽  
Marlena Shin ◽  
Hillary J Mull ◽  
Isabella Epshtein ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Despite a strong evidence base and clinical guidelines specifically recommending against prolonged post-procedural antimicrobial use, studies indicate that the practice is common following cardiac device procedures. Formative evaluations conducted by the study team suggest that inappropriate antimicrobial use may be driven by information silos that drive provider belief that antimicrobials are not harmful, in part due to lack of complete feedback about all types of clinical outcomes. De-implementation is recognized as an important area of research that can lead to reductions in unnecessary, wasteful, or harmful practices, such as excess antimicrobial use following cardiac device procedures; however, investigations into strategies that lead to successful de-implementation are limited. The overarching hypothesis to be tested in this trial is that a bundle of implementation strategies that includes audit and feedback about direct patient harms caused by inappropriate prescribing can lead to successful de-implementation of guideline-discordant care.Methods: We propose a Hybrid Type III effectiveness-implementation stepped-wedge intervention trial at three high-volume, high-complexity VA medical centers. The main study intervention (an informatics-based, real-time audit-and-feedback tool) was developed based on learning/unlearning theory and formative evaluations and guided by the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) Framework. Elements of the bundled and multifaceted implementation strategy to promote appropriate prescribing will include audit-and-feedback reports that include information about antibiotic harms, stakeholder engagement, patient and provider education, identification of local champions, and blended facilitation. The primary study outcome is adoption of evidence-based practice (de-implementation of inappropriate antimicrobial use). Clinical outcomes (cardiac device infections, acute kidney injuries and Clostridioides difficile infections) are secondary. Qualitative interviews will assess relevant implementation outcomes (acceptability, adoption, fidelity, feasibility).Discussion: De-implementation theory suggests that factors that may have a particularly strong influence on de-implementation include strength of the underlying evidence, the complexity of the intervention, and patient and provider anxiety and fear about changing an established practice. This study will assess whether a multifaceted intervention mapped to identified de-implementation barriers leads to measurable improvements in provision of guideline-concordant antimicrobial use. Findings will improve understanding about factors that impact successful or unsuccessful de-implementation of harmful or wasteful healthcare practices.Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT05020418)


2021 ◽  
pp. bmjqs-2021-013588
Author(s):  
Jamie Catlow ◽  
Rashmi Bhardwaj-Gosling ◽  
Linda Sharp ◽  
Matthew David Rutter ◽  
Falko F Sniehotta

BackgroundAudit and feedback (A&F) interventions improve patient care but may result in unintended consequences. To evaluate plausible harms and maximise benefits, theorisation using logic models can be useful. We aimed to explore the adverse effects of colonoscopy A&F using a feedback intervention theory (FIT) dark logic model before the National Endoscopy Database Automated Performance Reports to Improve Quality Outcomes Trial study.MethodsWe undertook a qualitative study exploring A&F practices in colonoscopy. Interviews were undertaken with endoscopists from six English National Health Service endoscopy centres, purposively sampled for professional background and experience. A thematic framework analysis was performed, mapping paradoxical effects and harms using FIT and the theory of planned behaviour.ResultsData saturation was achieved on the 19th participant, with participants from nursing, surgical and medical backgrounds and a median of 7 years’ experience.When performance was below aspirational targets participants were falsely reassured by social comparisons. Participants described confidence as a requirement for colonoscopy. Negative feedback without a plan to improve risked reducing confidence and impeding performance (cognitive interference). Unmet targets increased anxiety and prompted participants to question messages’ motives and consider gaming.Participants described inaccurate documentation of subjective measures, including patient comfort, to achieve targets perceived as important. Participants described causing harm from persevering to complete procedures despite patient discomfort and removing insignificant polyps to improve detection rates without benefiting the patient.ConclusionOur dark logic model highlighted that A&F interventions may create both desired and adverse effects. Without a priori theorisation evaluations may disregard potential harms. In colonoscopy, improved patient experience measures may reduce harm. To address cognitive interference the motivation of feedback to support improvement should always be clear, with plans targeting specific behaviours and offering face-to-face support for confidence.Trial registration numberISRCTN11126923.


2021 ◽  
pp. 135581962110443
Author(s):  
Sarah Alderson ◽  
Tom A Willis ◽  
Su Wood ◽  
Fabiana Lorencatto ◽  
Jill Francis ◽  
...  

Background Audit and feedback entails systematic documentation of clinical performance based on explicit criteria or standards which is then fed back to professionals in a structured manner. There are potential significant returns on investment from partnerships between existing clinical audit programmes in coordinated programmes of research to test ways of improving the effect of their feedback to drive greater improvements in health care delivery and population outcomes. We explored barriers to and enablers of embedding audit and feedback trials within clinical audit programmes. Methods We purposively recruited participants with varied experience in embedded trials in audit programmes. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews, guided by behavioural theory, with researchers, clinical audit programme staff and health care professionals. Recorded interviews were transcribed, and data coded and thematically analysed. Results We interviewed 31 participants (9 feedback researchers, 14 audit staff and 8 healthcare professionals, many having dual roles). We identified barriers and enablers for all 14 theoretical domains but no relationship between domains and participant role. We identified four optimal conditions for sustainable collaboration from the perspectives of stakeholders: resources, that is, recognition that audit programmes need to create capacity to participate in research, and research must be adapted to fit within each programme’s constraints; logistics, namely, that partnerships need to address data sharing and audit quality, while securing research funding to ensure operational success; leadership, that is, enthusiastic and engaged audit programme leaders must motivate their team and engage local stakeholders; and relationships, meaning that trust between researchers and audit programmes must be established over time by identifying shared priorities and meeting each partner’s needs. Conclusion Successfully embedding research within clinical audit programmes is likely to require compromise, logistical expertise, leadership and trusting relationships to overcome perceived risks and fully realise benefits.


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