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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Besat Kassaie ◽  
Elizabeth L. Irving ◽  
Frank Wm. Tompa

The standard approach to expert-in-the-loop machine learning is active learning, where, repeatedly, an expert is asked to annotate one or more records and the machine finds a classifier that respects all annotations made until that point. We propose an alternative approach, IQRef , in which the expert iteratively designs a classifier and the machine helps him or her to determine how well it is performing and, importantly, when to stop, by reporting statistics on a fixed, hold-out sample of annotated records. We justify our approach based on prior work giving a theoretical model of how to re-use hold-out data. We compare the two approaches in the context of identifying a cohort of EHRs and examine their strengths and weaknesses through a case study arising from an optometric research problem. We conclude that both approaches are complementary, and we recommend that they both be employed in conjunction to address the problem of cohort identification in health research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Don Samitha Elvitigala ◽  
Roger Boldu ◽  
Suranga Nanayakkara ◽  
Denys J. C. Matthies

Tickling is a type of sensation that is associated with laughter, smiling, or other similar reactions. Psychology research has shown that tickling and laughter can significantly relieve stress. Although several tickling artifacts have been suggested in prior work, limited knowledge is available if those artifacts could evoke laughter. In this article, we aim at filling this gap by designing and developing a novel foot-tickling mechanism that can evoke laughter. We first developed an actuator that can create tickling sensations along the sole of the foot utilising magnet-driven brushes. Then, we conducted two studies to identify the most ticklish locations of the foot’s sole and stimulation patterns that can evoke laughter. In a follow-up study with a new set of participants, we confirmed that the identified stimuli could evoke laughter. From the participants’ feedback, we derived several applications that such a simulation could be useful. Finally, we embedded our actuators into a flexible insole, demonstrating the potential of a wearable tickling insole.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Anders Miltner ◽  
Adrian Trejo Nuñez ◽  
Ana Brendel ◽  
Swarat Chaudhuri ◽  
Isil Dillig

We present a novel bottom-up method for the synthesis of functional recursive programs. While bottom-up synthesis techniques can work better than top-down methods in certain settings, there is no prior technique for synthesizing recursive programs from logical specifications in a purely bottom-up fashion. The main challenge is that effective bottom-up methods need to execute sub-expressions of the code being synthesized, but it is impossible to execute a recursive subexpression of a program that has not been fully constructed yet. In this paper, we address this challenge using the concept of angelic semantics. Specifically, our method finds a program that satisfies the specification under angelic semantics (we refer to this as angelic synthesis), analyzes the assumptions made during its angelic execution, uses this analysis to strengthen the specification, and finally reattempts synthesis with the strengthened specification. Our proposed angelic synthesis algorithm is based on version space learning and therefore deals effectively with many incremental synthesis calls made during the overall algorithm. We have implemented this approach in a prototype called Burst and evaluate it on synthesis problems from prior work. Our experiments show that Burst is able to synthesize a solution to 94% of the benchmarks in our benchmark suite, outperforming prior work.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Bhanuka Mahanama ◽  
Yasith Jayawardana ◽  
Sundararaman Rengarajan ◽  
Gavindya Jayawardena ◽  
Leanne Chukoskie ◽  

Our subjective visual experiences involve complex interaction between our eyes, our brain, and the surrounding world. It gives us the sense of sight, color, stereopsis, distance, pattern recognition, motor coordination, and more. The increasing ubiquity of gaze-aware technology brings with it the ability to track gaze and pupil measures with varying degrees of fidelity. With this in mind, a review that considers the various gaze measures becomes increasingly relevant, especially considering our ability to make sense of these signals given different spatio-temporal sampling capacities. In this paper, we selectively review prior work on eye movements and pupil measures. We first describe the main oculomotor events studied in the literature, and their characteristics exploited by different measures. Next, we review various eye movement and pupil measures from prior literature. Finally, we discuss our observations based on applications of these measures, the benefits and practical challenges involving these measures, and our recommendations on future eye-tracking research directions.

2022 ◽  
Saverio Dave Favaron ◽  
Giada Di Stefano ◽  
Rodolphe Durand

What happens in the aftermath of the introduction of a new status ranking? In this study, we exploit the unique empirical opportunity generated by the release of the first edition of the Michelin Guide for Washington, DC, in the fall of 2016. We build on prior work on rankings as insecurity-inducing devices by suggesting that newly awarded high-status actors modify their self-presentation attributes to fit with what they believe audiences expect from the elite. Our results show that, depending on their standing prior to Michelin’s entry, restaurants acted upon different attributes of their self-presentation. Restaurants with high prior standing emphasized attributes that channeled authenticity and exclusivity, which may imply that their Michelin designation triggered operational changes. Actors with low prior standing, on the other hand, acted on descriptive attributes that did not necessarily imply operational changes and could be easily manipulated to signal their belonging among the elite. We contribute to research on status and conformity by disentangling the sources and types of conformity behaviors that newly awarded high-status actors deploy. This paper was accepted by Lamar Pierce, organizations.

Anders Melander ◽  
Tomas Mullern ◽  
David Anderssson ◽  
Fredrik Elgh ◽  
Malin Löfving

AbstractBy building upon the prior work exploring the nature of practicing and knowing in collaborative research (CR), this article argues that focusing on how trust evolves in collaborative dialogue could enhance the learning potential in CR projects. Drawing from 42 workshops within a CR project, we analyze how dialogue and learning practices develop trust. We use the dialogical framework developed by Walton and Krabbe (1995) to identify and classify 107 dialogues. From our data, we identify three distinct dialogical patterns (educating, inquiring and practicing). These three dialogical patterns are related to four learning practices that are conceptualized as knowledge sharing, knowledge gapping, knowledge bettering and knowledge speculating. Combined, these dialogical patterns and learning practices develop collaborative trust in CR projects. We propose that these results represent an emerging conceptual language that addresses the development of trust in managing CR projects. This conceptual language can both improve managerial practice in the CR context and inspire future theory building.

2022 ◽  
Caroline M Hsu ◽  
Eduardo K Lacson ◽  
Harold J Manley ◽  
Gideon N Aweh ◽  
Dana Miskulin ◽  

Given the increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients undergoing maintenance dialysis, we examined the seroresponse to an additional dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, using a hypothesized protective anti-spike protein IgG antibody threshold of 7 based on prior work. Among 395 patients, 384 (97%) had seroresponse ≥7 following administration of the third dose. Among those with suboptimal (peak <7) and minimal (peak <1) seroresponse to an initial mRNA vaccine regimen, the rate of seroresponse ≥7 following a third dose was 97% (36 of 37) and 64% (14 of 22), respectively. Given ongoing high rates of COVID-19 and rapidly waning immunity after an initial vaccine series, we recommend a third mRNA vaccine dose be standard for all patients receiving maintenance dialysis.

Li-Ming Chen ◽  
Bao-Xin Xiu ◽  
Zhao-Yun Ding

AbstractFor short text classification, insufficient labeled data, data sparsity, and imbalanced classification have become three major challenges. For this, we proposed multiple weak supervision, which can label unlabeled data automatically. Different from prior work, the proposed method can generate probabilistic labels through conditional independent model. What’s more, experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of multiple weak supervision. According to experimental results on public dadasets, real datasets and synthetic datasets, unlabeled imbalanced short text classification problem can be solved effectively by multiple weak supervision. Notably, without reducing precision, recall, and F1-score can be improved by adding distant supervision clustering, which can be used to meet different application needs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 103-126
Yahaya Alhassan ◽  
Uzoechi Nwagbara ◽  
Samuel Salia

This chapter examined the factors that affect the use of microfinance for microbusiness development in Ghana. The study employed semi-structured survey questionnaire to determine whether an entrepreneur's personal attributes impede or facilitate microbusiness development in Ghana. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the effects of entrepreneur's personal attributes on the monthly sales, number of employees, business assets, and capital stock of microbusinesses that received credit from a microfinance provider in the northern region of Ghana. The findings of the study suggest that micro-entrepreneur prior work experience, occupation, and prior income facilitate the use of microfinance for microbusiness development. These findings have policy implications for the government of Ghana and other agencies that are interested in using microfinance as a catalyst for economic growth in deprived communities in the country.

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