Frontiers in Oncology
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haolin Yin ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Zihan Xu ◽  
Wenjun Huang ◽  
Tianwu Chen ◽  
...  

Background and PurposeBreast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has no metastatic potential, and has better clinical outcomes compared with invasive breast cancer (IBC). Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can adaptively extract features and may achieve higher efficiency in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-based tumor invasion assessment. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of constructing an ADC-based CNN model to discriminate DCIS from IBC.MethodsThe study retrospectively enrolled 700 patients with primary breast cancer between March 2006 and June 2019 from our hospital, and randomly selected 560 patients as the training and validation sets (ratio of 3 to 1), and 140 patients as the internal test set. An independent external test set of 102 patients during July 2019 and May 2021 from a different scanner of our hospital was selected as the primary cohort using the same criteria. In each set, the status of tumor invasion was confirmed by pathologic examination. The CNN model was constructed to discriminate DCIS from IBC using the training and validation sets. The CNN model was evaluated using the internal and external tests, and compared with the discriminating performance using the mean ADC. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to evaluate the performance of the previous model.ResultsThe AUCs of the ADC-based CNN model using the internal and external test sets were larger than those of the mean ADC (AUC: 0.977 vs. 0.866, P = 0.001; and 0.926 vs. 0.845, P = 0.096, respectively). Regarding the internal test set and external test set, the ADC-based CNN model yielded sensitivities of 0.893 and 0.873, specificities of 0.929 and 0.894, and accuracies of 0.907 and 0.902, respectively. Regarding the two test sets, the mean ADC showed sensitivities of 0.845 and 0.818, specificities of 0.821 and 0.829, and accuracies of 0.836 and 0.824, respectively. Using the ADC-based CNN model, the prediction only takes approximately one second for a single lesion.ConclusionThe ADC-based CNN model can improve the differentiation of IBC from DCIS with higher accuracy and less time.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhengqing Wan ◽  
Haofeng Xiong ◽  
Xian Tan ◽  
Tong Su ◽  
Kun Xia ◽  
...  

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Due to the lack of early detection and treatment, the survival rate of OSCC remains poor and the incidence of OSCC has not decreased during the past decades. To explore potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OSCC, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with OSCC using RNA sequencing technology. Methylation−regulated and differentially expressed genes (MeDEGs) of OSCC were further identified via an integrative approach by examining publicly available methylomic datasets together with our transcriptomic data. Protein−protein interaction (PPI) networks of MeDEGs were constructed and highly connected hub MeDEGs were identified from these PPI networks. Subsequently, expression and survival analyses of hub genes were performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) online tool. A total of 56 upregulated MeDEGs and 170 downregulated MeDEGs were identified in OSCC. Eleven hub genes with high degree of connectivity were picked out from the PPI networks constructed by those MeDEGs. Among them, the expression level of four hub genes (CTLA4, CDSN, ACTN2, and MYH11) were found to be significantly changed in the head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC) patients. Three hypomethylated hub genes (CTLA4, GPR29, and TNFSF11) and one hypermethylated hub gene (ISL1) were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) of HNSC patients. Therefore, these hub genes may serve as potential DNA methylation biomarkers and therapeutic targets of OSCC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liang Zhao ◽  
Guangyu Bai ◽  
Ying Ji ◽  
Yue Peng ◽  
Ruochuan Zang ◽  
...  

IntroductionStage IA lung adenocarcinoma manifested as part-solid nodules (PSNs), has attracted immense attention owing to its unique characteristics and the definition of its invasiveness remains unclear. We sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the status of lymph nodes of this kind of nodules.MethodsA total of 2,504 patients between September 2018 to October 2020 with part-solid nodules in our center were reviewed. Their histopathological features were extracted from paraffin sections, whereas frozen sections were reviewed to confirm the consistency of frozen sections and paraffin sections. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and Akaike information criterion (AIC) variable selection were performed to assess the risk factors of lymph node metastasis and construct the nomogram. The nomogram was subjected to bootstrap internal validation and external validation. The concordance index (C-index) was applied to evaluate the predictive accuracy and discriminative ability.ResultsWe enrolled 215 and 161 eligible patients in the training cohort and validation cohort, respectively. The sensitivity between frozen and paraffin sections on the presence of micropapillary/solid subtype was 78.4%. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that MVI, the presence of micropapillary/solid subtype, and CTR >0.61 were independently associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01). Five risk factors were integrated into the nomogram. The nomogram demonstrated good accuracy in estimating the risk of lymph node metastasis, with a C-index of 0.945 (95% CI: 0.916–0.974) in the training cohort and a C-index of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.954–0.995) in the validation cohort. The model’s calibration was excellent in both cohorts.ConclusionThe nomogram established showed excellent discrimination and calibration and could predict the status of lymph nodes for patients with ≤3 cm PSNs. Also, this prediction model has the prediction potential before the end of surgery.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ying Chen ◽  
Xiaoying Cui ◽  
Di Wang ◽  
Guojie Xia ◽  
Minyan Xing ◽  
...  

PurposeLarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and classic large cell carcinoma (LCC) are two distinct entities with different histological and biological characteristics. However, the mutational profiles and the clinical behavior of the two subtypes of lung cancer remain to be explored.Patients and MethodsPathological diagnoses of all screened patients were finally confirmed by three or four experienced pathologists. Patients with uncertain pathological diagnoses were excluded. Finally, we genetically profiled ten patients with LCNEC and seven with LCC. ALL patients were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) test, which included nine patients sequenced with a 139-gene panel and eight patients with a 425-gene panel. Including only intersected mutations from these two panels, survival analysis was further conducted.ResultsBoth LCNEC and LCC showed high prevalence in male patients, with no clear association with smoking history. Potential targetable mutations in KRAS and RET were detected in the study cohort. However, LCNEC and LCC showed distinct mutational profiles with an enrichment of RB1/TP53 co-mutations in a subset of LCNEC patients. SMARCA4 and KEAP1 mutations were exclusively found in LCC patients, and RICTOR, BRAF, ROS1 and TET2 mutations were only detected in LCNEC. LCC patients in the cohort had shorter survival compared to LCNEC patients (p=0.006). Survival analysis revealed an association between SMARCA4 mutations and poor outcome in the study cohort and in the LCC subset. Mutations in BRAF were associated with a trend of increased survival in the study cohort, as well as in the LCNEC subset. Finally, TET2 mutations were associated with poor outcome in the LCNEC cohort.ConclusionLCC and LCNEC were both heterogeneous diseases with limited treatment options. Our study identified potential targetable mutations and prognostic biomarkers that might provide more therapeutic options and improve individualized patient care.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhihong Gong ◽  
Mary E. Platek ◽  
Cathee Till ◽  
Phyllis J. Goodman ◽  
Catherine M. Tangen ◽  
...  

Study of polymorphisms in genes related to the generation and removal of oxidative stress and repair of oxidative DNA damage will lead to new insights into the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a double-blind, randomized controlled trial testing finasteride versus placebo for prostate cancer prevention, we intend to investigate the role of oxidative stress/DNA repair mechanisms in prostate cancer etiology and whether these polymorphisms modify prostate cancer risk by interacting with antioxidant status in both placebo and finasteride arms. We evaluated associations of selected candidate polymorphisms in genes in these pathways, and interactions with pre-diagnostic serum antioxidants, and the risk of prostate cancer among 1,598 cases and 1,706 frequency-matched controls enrolled in the PCPT. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. While there were no statistically significant associations observed in the placebo arm, several SNPs were associated with prostate cancer in the finasteride arm. Specifically, APEX1-rs1760944 was associated with increased risk of total prostate cancer (per minor allele: p-trend=0.04). OGG1-rs1052133 was positively (CG/GG vs. CC: OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.73) and NOS3-rs1799983 was inversely (per minor allele: p-trend=0.04) associated with risk of low-grade prostate cancer. LIG3-rs1052536 and XRCC1-rs25489 were suggestively associated with reduced risk of high-grade prostate cancer (per minor allele: both p-trend=0.04). In the placebo arm, significant associations were observed among men with higher serum lycopene for APEX1-rs1760944 and NQO1-rs1800566, or higher serum β-cryptoxanthin for ERCC4-rs1800067. In the finasteride arm, stronger associations were observed among men with lower serum lycopene for NOS3-rs1799983, higher serum α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin for LIG3-rs1052536, or lower serum retinol for SOD2-rs1799725. These results suggest that germline variations in oxidative stress and DNA repair pathways may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis and that these associations may differ by intraprostatic sex steroid hormone status and be further modified by antioxidant status. Findings provide insights into the complex role of gene, gene-antioxidant and -finasteride interactions in prostate cancer etiology, and thus may lead to the development of preventative strategies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiayi Liu ◽  
Zhijie Bai ◽  
Shuaiqi Li ◽  
Sheng Zeng ◽  
Chuang Li ◽  
...  

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT), also known as plasma cell granuloma (PCG) or inflammatory pseudotumour (IPT), is a distinctive, rarely metastasizing neoplasm composed of myofibroblastic and fibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by inflammatory infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes and/or eosinophils. IMT predominantly affects children and young adults, and the age at presentation ranges from 3 to 89 years. We present a very rare case of recurrent testicular IMT without ALK rearrangement. This case highlights the clinical characteristics and diagnostic factors associated with primary and recurrent foci of this rare tumour, along with key therapeutic approaches.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alejandra Wu Chuang ◽  
Oliver Kepp ◽  
Guido Kroemer ◽  
Lucillia Bezu

Local anesthetics are frequently employed during surgery in order to control peri- and postoperative pain. Retrospective studies have revealed an unexpected correlation between increased long-term survival and the use of local anesthetics during oncological surgery. This effect of local anesthetics might rely on direct cytotoxic effects on malignant cells or on indirect, immune-mediated effects. It is tempting to speculate, yet needs to be formally proven, that the combination of local anesthetics with oncological surgery and conventional anticancer therapy would offer an opportunity to control residual cancer cells. This review summarizes findings from fundamental research together with clinical data on the use of local anesthetics as anticancer standalone drugs or their combination with conventional treatments. We suggest that a better comprehension of the anticancer effects of local anesthetics at the preclinical and clinical levels may broadly improve the surgical treatment of cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Yang ◽  
Bide Zhao ◽  
Jinghan Wang ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Chao Hu ◽  
...  

Core Binding Factor (CBF)-AML is one of the most common somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). t(8;21)/AML1-ETO-positive acute myeloid leukemia accounts for 5-10% of all AMLs. In this study, we consecutively included 254 AML1-ETO patients diagnosed and treated at our institute from December 2009 to March 2020, and evaluated molecular mutations by 185-gene NGS platform to explore genetic co-occurrences with clinical outcomes. Our results showed that high KIT VAF(≥15%) correlated with shortened overall survival compared to other cases with no KIT mutation (3-year OS rate 26.6% vs 59.0% vs 69.6%, HR 1.50, 95%CI 0.78-2.89, P=0.0005). However, no difference was found in patients’ OS whether they have KIT mutation in two or three sites. Additionally, we constructed a risk model by combining clinical and molecular factors; this model was validated in other independent cohorts. In summary, our study showed that c-kit other than any other mutations would influence the OS in AML1-ETO patients. A proposed predictor combining both clinical and genetic factors is applicable to prognostic prediction in AML1-ETO patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zu-Nan Tang ◽  
Lei-Hao Hu ◽  
Hui Yuh Soh ◽  
Yao Yu ◽  
Wen-Bo Zhang ◽  
...  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of mixed reality combined with surgical navigation in oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery.MethodsRetrospective analysis of data of seven patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors who underwent surgery between January 2019 and January 2021 using a combination of mixed reality and surgical navigation. Virtual surgical planning and navigation plan were based on preoperative CT datasets. Through IGT-Link port, mixed reality workstation was synchronized with surgical navigation, and surgical planning data were transferred to the mixed reality workstation. Osteotomy lines were marked with the aid of both surgical navigation and mixed reality images visualized through HoloLens. Frozen section examination was used to ensure negative surgical margins. Postoperative CT datasets were obtained 1 week after the surgery, and chromatographic analysis of virtual osteotomies and actual osteotomies was carried out. Patients received standard oncological postoperative follow-up.ResultsOf the seven patients, four had maxillary tumors and three had mandibular tumors. There were total of 13 osteotomy planes. Mean deviation between the planned osteotomy plane and the actual osteotomy plane was 1.68 ± 0.92 mm; the maximum deviation was 3.46 mm. Chromatographic analysis showed error of ≤3 mm for 80.16% of the points. Mean deviations of maxillary and mandibular osteotomy lines were approximate (1.60 ± 0.93 mm vs. 1.86 ± 0.93 mm). While five patients had benign tumors, two had malignant tumors. Mean deviations of osteotomy lines was comparable between patients with benign and malignant tumors (1.48 ± 0.74 mm vs. 2.18 ± 0.77 mm). Intraoperative frozen pathology confirmed negative resection margins in all cases. No tumor recurrence or complications occurred during mean follow-up of 15.7 months (range, 6-26 months).ConclusionThe combination of mixed reality technology and surgical navigation appears to be feasible, safe, and effective for tumor resection in the oral and maxillofacial region.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianwen Huang ◽  
Wenshen Xu

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a common type of malignant neoplasm in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Most cases of simple cSCC are considered curable by surgical removal of the lesion. However, clinical treatments for cSCC with medium- or large-sized lesions are difficult. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the treatments is not guaranteed, especially for elderly patients, because of an intolerance to surgical resection or other adjuvant modalities. In such cases, safe and effective treatments with excellent aesthetic outcomes are urgently needed. In this study, we reported 6 elderly cSCC patients with medium- or large-sized lesions treated with argon–helium cryoablation. The average age of all 6 patients was 78 years (range 72–85 years). They were all diagnosed with cSCC with a median tumor size of 5.8 cm (range 2.5–15.5 cm) and dermal invasion. Complete ablation was achieved in all cases after a single ablation session (2 freeze–thaw cycles). Patients experienced mild pain and hemorrhage after ablation, but the symptoms were manageable. One patient developed infection and fever because of extensive necrosis of the tumor, which was eventually cured after treatment. All patients obtained good cosmetic outcomes, and their quality of life improved significantly. In the 5-year follow-up study, 4 patients were alive while 2 patients died of unrelated diseases 3 years after cryotherapy. None of the 6 patients had a recurrence. These results suggested the feasibility of argon–helium cryoablation as a novel therapeutic strategy for elderly cSCC with medium- or large-sized lesions.


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