global and local
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Alicja Najwer ◽  
Piotr Jankowski ◽  
Jacek Niesterowicz ◽  
Zbigniew Zwoliński

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-43
Xu Yang ◽  
Chao Song ◽  
Mengdi Yu ◽  
Jiqing Gu ◽  
Ming Liu

Recently, the counting algorithm of local topology structures, such as triangles, has been widely used in social network analysis, recommendation systems, user portraits and other fields. At present, the problem of counting global and local triangles in a graph stream has been widely studied, and numerous triangle counting steaming algorithms have emerged. To improve the throughput and scalability of streaming algorithms, many researches of distributed streaming algorithms on multiple machines are studied. In this article, we first propose a framework of distributed streaming algorithm based on the Master-Worker-Aggregator architecture. The two core parts of this framework are an edge distribution strategy, which plays a key role to affect the performance, including the communication overhead and workload balance, and aggregation method, which is critical to obtain the unbiased estimations of the global and local triangle counts in a graph stream. Then, we extend the state-of-the-art centralized algorithm TRIÈST into four distributed algorithms under our framework. Compared to their competitors, experimental results show that DVHT-i is excellent in accuracy and speed, performing better than the best existing distributed streaming algorithm. DEHT-b is the fastest algorithm and has the least communication overhead. What’s more, it almost achieves absolute workload balance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Xingshan Zeng ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Lingzhi Wang ◽  
Kam-Fai Wong

The popularity of social media platforms results in a huge volume of online conversations produced every day. To help users better engage in online conversations, this article presents a novel framework to automatically recommend conversations to users based on what they said and how they behaved in their chatting histories. While prior work mostly focuses on post-level recommendation, we aim to explore conversation context and model the interaction patterns therein. Furthermore, to characterize personal interests from interleaving user interactions, we learn (1) global interactions , represented by topic and discourse word clusters to reflect users’ content and pragmatic preferences, and (2) local interactions , encoding replying relations and chronological order of conversation turns to characterize users’ prior behavior. Built on collaborative filtering, our model captures global interactions via discovering word distributions to represent users’ topical interests and discourse behaviors, while local interactions are explored with graph-structured networks exploiting both reply structure and temporal features. Extensive experiments on three datasets from Twitter and Reddit show that our model coupling global and local interactions significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art model. Further analyses show that our model is able to capture meaningful features from global and local interactions, which results in its superior performance in conversation recommendation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 972
Chen Jin ◽  
Zhuangwei Shi ◽  
Chuanze Kang ◽  
Ken Lin ◽  
Han Zhang

X-ray diffraction technique is one of the most common methods of ascertaining protein structures, yet only 2–10% of proteins can produce diffraction-quality crystals. Several computational methods have been proposed so far to predict protein crystallization. Nevertheless, the current state-of-the-art computational methods are limited by the scarcity of experimental data. Thus, the prediction accuracy of existing models hasn’t reached the ideal level. To address the problems above, we propose a novel transfer-learning-based framework for protein crystallization prediction, named TLCrys. The framework proceeds in two steps: pre-training and fine-tuning. The pre-training step adopts attention mechanism to extract both global and local information of the protein sequences. The representation learned from the pre-training step is regarded as knowledge to be transferred and fine-tuned to enhance the performance of crystalization prediction. During pre-training, TLCrys adopts a multi-task learning method, which not only improves the learning ability of protein encoding, but also enhances the robustness and generalization of protein representation. The multi-head self-attention layer guarantees that different levels of the protein representation can be extracted by the fine-tuned step. During transfer learning, the fine-tuning strategy used by TLCrys improves the task-specialized learning ability of the network. Our method outperforms all previous predictors significantly in five crystallization stages of prediction. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can be well generalized to other protein sequence classification tasks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 146144482110678
Anat Leshnick

Much research has documented how global technologies and platforms are part of specific cultures and reflect local values. In this study, I examine the case of Hebrew Wikipedia as representative of localization that is neither top-down (producer-driven) nor bottom-up (user-driven); but rather, it is implemented by mid-level, self-selecting bureaucratic administrators in an ongoing process that is driven by their own perceptions of Wikipedia’s mission. Through an analysis of Hebrew Wikipedia’s deletion discussion pages—in which editors decide what information should be excluded from Wikipedia—I demonstrate how national ideology customarily triumphs over the global, communitarian ethos of the Wikipedia project. Even when decisions are aligned with a more “global” agenda, editors still portray their choices as congruent with the national cause through strategic use of depersonalized discourses about Wikipedia’s policies. I thus argue that global, seemingly “neutral” policies can provide a discursive framework that conceals questions about the power of local ideologies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Songshang Zou ◽  
Wenshu Chen ◽  
Hao Chen

Image saliency object detection can rapidly extract useful information from image scenes and further analyze it. At present, the traditional saliency target detection technology still has the edge of outstanding target that cannot be well preserved. Convolutional neural network (CNN) can extract highly general deep features from the images and effectively express the essential feature information of the images. This paper designs a model which applies CNN in deep saliency object detection tasks. It can efficiently optimize the edges of foreground objects and realize highly efficient image saliency detection through multilayer continuous feature extraction, refinement of layered boundary, and initial saliency feature fusion. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can achieve more robust saliency detection to adjust itself to complex background environment.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Mohammad Reza Davahli ◽  
Waldemar Karwowski ◽  
Krzysztof Fiok ◽  
Atsuo Murata ◽  
Nabin Sapkota ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first discovered in China; within several months, it spread worldwide and became a pandemic. Although the virus has spread throughout the globe, its effects have differed. The pandemic diffusion network dynamics (PDND) approach was proposed to better understand the spreading behavior of COVID-19 in the US and Japan. We used daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 from 5 January 2020 to 31 July 2021, for all states (prefectures) of the US and Japan. By applying the pandemic diffusion network dynamics (PDND) approach to COVID-19 time series data, we developed diffusion graphs for the US and Japan. In these graphs, nodes represent states and prefectures (regions), and edges represent connections between regions based on the synchrony of COVID-19 time series data. To compare the pandemic spreading dynamics in the US and Japan, we used graph theory metrics, which targeted the characterization of COVID-19 bedhavior that could not be explained through linear methods. These metrics included path length, global and local efficiency, clustering coefficient, assortativity, modularity, network density, and degree centrality. Application of the proposed approach resulted in the discovery of mostly minor differences between analyzed countries. In light of these findings, we focused on analyzing the reasons and defining research hypotheses that, upon addressing, could shed more light on the complex phenomena of COVID-19 virus spread and the proposed PDND methodology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 103
Camilla Bertolini ◽  
Roberto Pastres

Background: Active restoration is necessary to enhance the recovery of Ostrea edulis reefs, which contribute to many ecosystem services. Restoration can be integrated within aquaculture practices, bringing positive environmental changes while maximising space utilisation. The restoration project MAREA (MAtchmaking Restoration Ecology and Aquaculture) aims to bring back O. edulis in the North-West Adriatic addressing the feasibility of its cultivation. Both successful restoration and sustainable aquaculture require a thorough understanding of the ecological needs, as the requirements of both activities need to be harmonized. Therefore, one of the preliminary activities before embarking on the pilot was the completion of a thorough literature review to identify research directions and gaps required for ‘restorative aquaculture’, aiming to gather the most up to date O. edulis knowledge on a global and local scale.  Methods: Internet (Web of Science, Scopus, Google scholar) and physical resources (libraries) were searched for all available global and local knowledge on O. edulis. Bibliometrix was used to identify the main research topics using keywords, titles, and abstracts analyses. Studies were then manually screened and summarised to extract knowledge specific to restoration and aquaculture. Results: While restoration studies are recent, evidence for the loss of this species and potential causes (and solutions) have been discussed since the end of the 19th century. While diseases were a leading cause for reef loss, substratum limitation appears to be one of the leading limiting factors for both restoration and aquaculture of O. edulis, and was already mentioned in the early texts that were found. Conclusions: The review highlighted that restoration success and aquaculture feasibility depend upon the crucial stage of settlement. The project ‘MAREA’ will therefore increase its focus on this stage, both in terms of timing, location, and materials for settlement plates placement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 341
Mathilde Letard ◽  
Antoine Collin ◽  
Thomas Corpetti ◽  
Dimitri Lague ◽  
Yves Pastol ◽  

Coastal areas host highly valuable ecosystems that are increasingly exposed to the threats of global and local changes. Monitoring their evolution at a high temporal and spatial scale is therefore crucial and mostly possible through remote sensing. This article demonstrates the relevance of topobathymetric lidar data for coastal and estuarine habitat mapping by classifying bispectral data to produce 3D maps of 21 land and sea covers at very high resolution. Green lidar full waveforms are processed to retrieve tailored features corresponding to the signature of those habitats. These features, along with infrared intensities and elevations, are used as predictors for random forest classifications, and their respective contribution to the accuracy of the results is assessed. We find that green waveform features, infrared intensities, and elevations are complimentary and yield the best classification results when used in combination. With this configuration, a classification accuracy of 90.5% is achieved for the segmentation of our dual-wavelength lidar dataset. Eventually, we produce an original mapping of a coastal site under the form of a point cloud, paving the way for 3D classification and management of land and sea covers.

Derara Duba Rufo ◽  
Taye Girma Debelee ◽  
Worku Gachena Negera

Health is a critical condition for living things, even before the technology exists. Nowadays the healthcare domain provides a lot of scope for research as it has extremely evolved. The most researched areas of health sectors include diabetes mellitus (DM), breast cancer, brain tumor, etc. DM is a severe chronic disease that affects human health and has a high rate throughout the world. Early prediction of DM is important to reduce its risk and even avoid it. In this study, we propose a DM prediction model based on global and local learner algorithms. The proposed global and local learners stacking (GLLS) model; combines the prediction algorithms from two largely different but complementary machine learning paradigms, specifically XGBoost and NB from global learning whereas kNN and SVM (with RBF kernel) from local learning and aggregates them by stacking ensemble technique using LR as meta-learner. The effectiveness of the GLLS model was proved by comparing several performance measures and the results of different contrast experiments. The evaluation results on UCI Pima Indian diabetes data-set (PIDD) indicates the model has achieved the better prediction performance of 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.1%, and 100% in terms of accuracy, AUC, F1 score, sensitivity, and specificity respectively, compared to other research results mentioned in the literature. Moreover, to better validate the GLLS model performance, three additional medical data sets; Messidor, WBC, ILPD, are considered and the model also achieved an accuracy of 82.1%, 98.6%, and 89.3% respectively. Experimental results proved the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed GLLS model.

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