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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (5) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Author(s):  
Xiaohui Wu

In this paper, Artificial Intelligence assisted rule-based confidence metric (AI-CRBM) framework has been introduced for analyzing environmental governance expense prediction reform. A metric method is to assess a level of collective environmental governance representing general, government, and corporate aspects. The equilibrium approach is used to calculate improvements in the source of environmental management based on cost, and it is tailored to test the public sector-corporation for environmental shared governance. The overall concept of cost prediction or estimation of environmental governance is achieved by the rule-based confidence method. The framework compares the expected cost to the environment of governance to determine the efficiency of the cost prediction process.


2023 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Erlane K. Ghani ◽  
Siti Murni Abdol Jahim

Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lucy Stuttard ◽  
Philip Boyle ◽  
Caroline Fairhurst ◽  
Catherine Hewitt ◽  
Francesco Longo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Hearing loss increases the risk of poor outcomes across a range of life domains. Where hearing loss is severe or profound, audiological interventions and rehabilitation have limited impact. Hearing dogs offer an alternative, or additional, intervention. They live permanently with recipients, providing sound support and companionship. Methods A single-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the impacts of a hearing dog on mental well-being, anxiety, depression, problems associated with hearing loss (responding to sounds, fearfulness/social isolation), and perceived dependency on others. Participants were applicants to the UK charity ‘Hearing Dogs for Deaf People’. Eligibility criteria were as follows: first-time applicant; applying for a hearing dog (as opposed to other support provided by the charity). Participants were randomised 1:1 to the following: receive a hearing dog sooner than usual [HD], or within the usual application timeframe (wait-list [WL] comparator). The primary outcome was mental well-being (Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale) 6 months (T1) after HD received a hearing dog. The cost-effectiveness analysis took a health and social care perspective. Results In total, 165 participants were randomised (HD n = 83, WL n = 82). A total of 112 (67.9%) were included in the primary analysis (HD n = 55, WL n = 57). At T1, mental well-being was significantly higher in the HD arm (adjusted mean difference 2.53, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.79, p < 0.001). Significant improvements in anxiety, depression, functioning, fearfulness/social isolation, and perceived dependency, favouring the HD arm, were also observed. On average, HD participants had used fewer statutory health and social care resources. In a scenario whereby costs of provision were borne by the public sector, hearing dogs do not appear to be value for money. If the public sector made a partial contribution, it is possible that hearing dogs would be cost-effective from a public sector perspective. Conclusions Hearing dogs appear to benefit recipients across a number of life domains, at least in the short term. Within the current funding model (costs entirely borne by the charity), hearing dogs are cost-effective from the public sector perspective. Whilst it would not be cost-effective to fully fund the provision of hearing dogs by the public sector, a partial contribution could be explored. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry on 28.1.2019: ISRCTN36452009.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 240-257
Author(s):  
Micah Odhiambo Nyamita ◽  
Prof. Nirmala Dorasamy

The public sector financial management reforms being adopted by many countries, such as South Africa, have encouraged the adoption of private-sector management style, such as debt management, within the state-owned corporations. The reform agenda on debt financing is that state-owned corporations should face competitive conditions regarding access to finance. To highlight on the achievements of these reforms, this study explored the questions as to whether the drivers of debt financing within state-owned corporations in South Africa are similar to those of private-sector corporations. Applying a hybrid of cross sectional and longitudinal quantitative surveys, a panel data regression model was used to analyse data from 26 income-generating state-owned corporations in South Africa for the eight-year period 2007-2014 using the generalized method of moments (GMM). The results identified the main determinants of debt financing within the state-owned corporations in South Africa to include asset tangibility, corporation’s growth and liquidity.  


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luc Bernier ◽  
Luc Juillet ◽  
Carl Deschamps

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 386
Author(s):  
Virgínia Silva ◽  
Maria Helena Santos ◽  
Miriam Rosa

Gender equality is a matter for debate worldwide. In 2018, Portugal enacted legislation (Decree Law no. 62/2017) to balance gender representation on the executive boards of listed and public sector organizations with measures similar to those causing controversies in other countries. Thus, in accordance with previous research, a study took place to examine the attitudes towards the justice of this legislation and the role of merit in these attitudes. This study (n = 129 women and 94 men) deployed an experimentally manipulative type of affirmative action program to consider the role of individual perceptions of the justice of the legislation coupled with the influence of beliefs in meritocracy and participant gender. The results identify how the type of affirmative action impacted on the perceived justice, also influenced by merit, which seems normative and fundamental to evaluating the justice of such legally stipulated provisions. Nonetheless, objectively evaluating candidate merits revealed difficulties in disentangling this process from personality traits.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sobia Hassan ◽  
Nighat Ansari ◽  
Ali Rehman

PurposeThe present research aims to examine the effect of workplace spirituality (WPS) and employee well-being (EWB) on public service motivation (PSM) in the public institutions. Workplace spirituality and EWB are two concepts related to the optimal level of human performance, while the motivation of academic staff is a vital concern in higher education institutions (HEIs), particularly in the public sector. In this competitive age, it is a challenge to improve the motivation of academic staff due to limited resources in developing countries. This study examines the association between WPS and PSM through the lens of EWB in the context of HEIs.Design/methodology/approachThis study opted for a quantitative research method by using a stratified sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the academic staff of renowned public sector universities located in Lahore, Pakistan. Hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling through AMOS: 22.FindingsThe results supported the established conceptual model that WPS is positively associated with PSM through the mediating role of EWB.Research limitations/implicationsThe research approach chosen may lack generalizability of the results because the data were collected from a specific population. Moreover, self-report measures were used, which may have led to common method bias which is also another drawback of the study.Practical implicationsThis study is a pioneer in conceptualizing and testing a model that links WPS, EWB and PSM in the context of HEIs. The implications regarding enhancing the culture of spirituality in the workplace, EWB and PSM are elaborated in the specific context of academic staff, attempting to fill a gap in the extant literature.Originality/valueThis study accomplishes a recognized need to study how PSM can be improved by facilitating EWB and WPS.


2021 ◽  
pp. 0619-10272R1
Author(s):  
Julie Berry Cullen ◽  
Eric A. Hanushek ◽  
Gregory Phelan ◽  
Steven G. Rivkin

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matt X. Richardson ◽  
Sara Landerdahl Stridsberg ◽  
Sarah Wamala-Andersson

Abstract BackgroundHealth and welfare technologies (HWT) are becoming increasingly employed in the Nordic countries, and in Sweden in particular. The amount of HWT public procurement is likely increasing at a similar rate, but requirements for evidence of effectiveness placed on bidders during this process may be lacking. Method This study investigated the use of evidence as a requirement in public sector tendering process of HWT, and how it affected bidder attributes and procurement outcomes. A novel type of systematic review and content analysis of requests for tenders for HWT announced prior to June 2021 was therefore conducted in Swedish public procurement databases.ResultNinety requests for tenders for 11 types of HWT met the inclusion criteria for review, accounting for potential contracts worth 246 to 296 million EUR. Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness were used in 16 requests for tenders, accounting for 183 million EUR in potential contracts. Eight of the requests referred to an established independent standard to confirm such evidence, such as CE standard of conformity, MDR and/or MDD. This prevalence appears to cut across all types of procuring organisations and all types of HWT. The use of any evidence criteria, or lack thereof, does not appear to affect the outcomes of the tendering process. Conclusion Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness are used in less than a fifth of all public procurements of health- and welfare technologies in Sweden, and less than 10 % refer to some form of independent standard as confirmation of such evidence. The procurement process therefore risks creating a legacy of sub-optimal technologies in health- and social care services. More prevalent and specific requirements for evidence and its continual generation in the procurement process are highly recommended. Recommendations for decision makers, procurement managers, and developers are made.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Paschalis Kagias ◽  
Anastasia Cheliatsidou ◽  
Alexandros Garefalakis ◽  
Jamel Azibi ◽  
Nikolaos Sariannidis

Purpose In recent years, Public Accountability and Integrity have been matters of growing attention, both in the public and private sector, as citizens demand value for money entrusted to the governments through their taxes. In addition, in many countries, after the recent recession, government budgets and corporate returns have been reduced. Many corporate scandals have occasionally become known and have had a great impact on confidence in the market. Even worse, after the pandemic of COVID-19, «bare and exacerbated massive preexisting problems in the world’s economic, social and security order, threatens to push up to 100 million people into extreme poverty in 2020, struck at a time of dwindling trust in representative governance» (UNDP, 2020). The funds of organizations in the private and public sector have been shrinking, whereas the situational pressures of fraud are increased. In this context, Dorris, President and CEO of the ACFE warns for explosion of fraud in the coming years and reminds that during the 2008 economic, companies cut-off, non-revenue generating activities, such as the internal audit and the compliance departments leaving them exposed to fraud. Therefore, organizations have to do more with less. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the fraud theory on the management’s perspective aiming to contribute to the efficient development of anti-fraud mechanisms Design/methodology/approach Having identified the fraud theory developed so far, we provide a framework for the fraud risk management. Findings This paper incorporates cost/benefits considerations, practical considerations and empirical evidence on fraud. Originality/value This paper provides valuable information to enable the management, who has the primary responsibility to prevent and detect fraud, to disclaim responsibility by broadening their understanding of fraud theory.


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