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2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (4) ◽  
pp. 797-802
Elijah M. K. Haynes ◽  
Jennifer M. Jakobi

The field of neuroscience has made notable strides that have contributed to progress and change in a number of academic pursuits. However, the lack of understanding of basic neuroscience concepts among the general public is likely to hinder, and in some instances possibly even prevent, the appropriate application of scientific advancements to issues facing society today. Greater neuroscience literacy among the general public is necessary for the benefits of neuroscientific discovery to be fully realized. By actively enhancing neuroscience literacy, scientists can dispel falsehoods established by early research that harmed underrepresented communities, ensure that public conversations concerning neuroscience (e.g., legalization of psychotropic substances) revolve around facts, and empower individuals to make better health decisions. The widespread implementation of communication technologies and various forms of media indicate there are numerous means to engage classroom learners across disciplines and age cohorts and the public to increase neuroscience knowledge. Thus, it is not only necessary but timely that neuroscientists seek meaningful ways to bridge the widening knowledge gap with the public.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (4) ◽  
pp. 258-266 ◽  
Susanne Christina Liebermann ◽  
Katharina Blenckner ◽  
Jan-Hendrik Diehl ◽  
Joschka Feilke ◽  
Christina Frei ◽  

Abstract. Lockdown regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak resulted in abrupt changes to work situations and presented new leadership challenges. This short report explores how leaders perceived their options for leading transformationally when their teams were forced to rapidly switch to virtual collaboration. We interviewed 20 supervisors using semistructured telephone interviews who described their general leadership behavior before the lockdown and the evaluated possibilities and difficulties of leading transformationally during the lockdown. The article provides insights into the preconditions for transformational leadership in the public sector during change processes. High workload, time pressure, and role conflicts, combined with restricted freedom of action, restrained their options of transformational leadership. Communicative problems further hindered the transfer of transformational leadership behavior to new working arrangements during the Covid-19-crisis. The article derives implications for ways of helping managers to employ the potentials of transformational leadership in virtual settings and during change processes in the public sector.

Facilities ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Putri Arumsari ◽  
Hendrik Sulistio

Purpose Public-rented flats in Jakarta Province operated by the Management Unit of Public-Rented Flats (MUPRF) experienced budget cuts for the maintenance and treatment activities during the COVID-19 pandemic that hit Indonesia in the early 2020. Currently, the budgeting scheme of the MUPRF uses the local government’s budget in determining the expenditures of public-rented flat. This papers aims to propose an alternative budgeting scheme for the MUPRF. Design/methodology/approach Soft system methodology (SSM) was adopted to understand the public-rented flats as a whole system, so an alternative budgeting scheme for the MUPRF can be identified and developed. Interviews with an employee of the Department of Community Housing and Settlement of Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Province were conducted. A rich picture, customer, action, transformation, worldview, owner and environment analyses, conceptual model and a proposed model were developed during the process. Findings Based on the SSM, it is found that becoming a local public service agency, the MUPRF can be more independent and flexible in managing their budget. The income generated by the public-rented flats can be used directly for their expenditure. Research limitations/implications Through the SSM, only a conceptual model is developed, which has not yet been implemented in practice. Future studies need to be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the conceptual model. Originality/value This research analyses the public-rented flat as a whole system through SSM to identify factors and parties that are involved in the daily activities in public-rented flats to propose a suitable alternative for its budgeting scheme.

2021 ◽  
Leila Abid ◽  
Rania Hammami ◽  
Ikram Chatmouri ◽  
Meriam Drissa ◽  
Selim Boudiche ◽  

Abstract BackgroundHypertension is the leading cause of morbi-moratlity in low, middle as well as high incomes countries. Tunisia is a developing country with a high cardiovascular profile and the prevalence of hypertension has widely increased during the last decades. Thus, we conducted this national survey on hypertension to analyze the profile of the Tunisian hypertensive patient and to assess the level of blood pressure control. MethodsNature HTN is an observational multicentric survey, including hypertensive individuals and consulting their doctors during the period of the study. The primary endpoint of our study was uncontrolled hypertension defined by a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg. Our objective is to assess the predictors of uncontrolled hypertension in our population. Results Three hundred twenty one investigators from all the Tunisian governorates participated in the study. We enrolled 25890 patients with a female predominance (Sex ratio 1.21) and an average age 64.4±12.2 year-old. Most of individuals were treated in the public sector (74%), 39.4% of patients were diabetic, 25.8% were obese, 44.6% were overweight and 14% were smokers. Hypertension was controlled in 51.7% of cases if we consider 140/90 as BP target and only in 18.6% if we consider 130/80 as a target. The independents predictors of uncontrolled blood pressure were male sex (OR=1.09, 95%CI [1.02-1.16]), age> 65 year-old (OR=1.07, 95% CI[1.01-1.13], diabetes (OR=1.18, 95% CI [1.11-1.25], Smoking (OR=1.15, 95% CI [1.05-1.25]), Obesity (OR=1.14, 95% CI[1.07-1.21]), management in public sector (OR=1.25, 95% CI [1.16-1.34]) and Heart rate >80bpm (OR=1.59, 95% CI [1.48-1.71]). Contrarily, high educational level (OR=0.9, 95% CI [0.84-0.97], absence of history of coronary disease (OR=0.86, 95% CI [0.8-0.93]), salt restriction (OR=0.48, 95% CI [0.45-0.51]), drug compliance (OR=0.57, 95% CI[0.52-0.61]) and regular physical activity (OR=0.77, 95% CI[0.71-0.84]) are strong predictors of blood pressure control. Conclusion Nature HTN showed a remarkable improvement of blood pressure control amongst Tunisian people. The control remains low in patients with high cardiovascular profile and those treated in the public sector. A national health program based on therapeutic education, regular control and continuous giving much support to the public institutions is needed to decrease the hypertension burden affection rate in our population.

Zahra Meghani

AbstractThis paper argues that regulatory agencies have a responsibility to further the public interest when they determine the conditions under which new technological products may be commercialized. As a case study, this paper analyzes the US 9th Circuit Court’s ruling on the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate an herbicide meant for use with seed that are genetically modified to be tolerant of the chemical. Using that case, it is argued that when regulatory agencies evaluate new technological products, they have an obligation to draw on data, analyses, and evaluations from a variety of credible epistemic sources, and not rely solely or even primarily on the technology developer. Otherwise, they create conditions for their own domination and that of the polity by the technology developer. Moreover, in the interest of advancing the public interest, regulatory agencies must evaluate new technologies in a substantively and procedurally unbiased manner.

Rafiqah Humaira ◽  

There are many literature reviews that write about the causes and expected consequences of an environmental, social, and economic crisis. It should be remembered that the role of the public sector is critical to overcoming crises, to promoting sustainable development and to managing the balance between supply and demand for public services. This qualitative research takes a case study approach to public agencies under the Ministry of Finance, namely the Directorate General of Customs and Excise. This study aims to explain financial sustainability in public bodies during the COVID-19 pandemic, and explain cutback management strategies indicated through refocusing carried out by government agencies during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as explain the relationship between cutback management and financial sustainability which is significantly directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the analysis show that there are differences in the financial sustainability of Customs and Excise during the pandemic, namely in terms of state revenues, it certainly changes (decreases) in terms of tax revenues, import duties, and excise. Then identified indicators of cutback strategies at Customs and Excise, and there is a conceptual link between financial sustainability, the COVID-19 pandemic and cutback management strategies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 34-46
Mariana Orliv ◽  
Brigita Janiūnaitė ◽  
Valentyna Goshovska ◽  
Rasa Daugėlienė

The purpose of the study is to investigate the features of assessment of public servants’ characteristics and their ability development to introduce reforms and innovations in public authorities using the design thinking methodology. The following tasks were set: 1) to investigate the problems of assessing the personal qualities and behavioral characteristics before and after training activities; 2) to find out what peculiarities of the introduction of reforms and innovations in public authorities should be taken into account in the assessment of public servants and their practice-oriented training; 3) based on the results of the research, to determine the features of the use of design thinking methodology in the public servants development. To achieve the research objective, the dialectical research, content analysis, questionnaire survey, expert assessment, methods of statistical analysis, and modeling were used. The results of the study testified that in many cases the method of self-assessment of personal qualities does not ensure the indicators objectivity. Therefore, such indicators should be compared with expert estimates. Based on the analysis of the results of empirical research in the public sector, the peculiarities of the reforms and innovations introduction related to bureaucracy and political influence, drivers of reforms and their outcomes, strict control over the use of resources, evaluation of the performance of public servants have been identified. The research allowed substantiating the proposals for the use of the design thinking methodology in training of public servants and evaluation of its results.

2021 ◽  
Alberto Molina Pérez ◽  
Janet Delgado ◽  
Mihaela Frunza ◽  
Myfanwy Morgan ◽  
Gurch Randhawa ◽  

Goal: To assess public knowledge and attitudes towards the role of the family in deceased organ donation in Europe. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in CINHAL, MEDLINE, PAIS Index, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. These databases were last searched on December 15th, 2017. Eligibility criteria were empirical studies conducted in Europe from 2008 to 2017 and addressing either knowledge or attitudes by the public towards the consent system, including the involvement of the family in the decision-making process, for post-mortem organ retrieval. Each record was screened by two or more independent reviewers in three phases. Data collection from each report was performed by two or more independent reviewers. Results: Of the 1,482 results, 467 reports were assessed in full-text form, and 33 were included in this synthesis. Studies show that a majority of the public support the family′s involvement in organ retrieval decision-making and, in particular, their role as surrogate decision-maker when the deceased has expressed no preference. Conclusions: A common conceptual framework and validated well-designed questionnaires are needed to address the role of the family in future studies. The findings should be considered in the development of Government policy and guidance regarding the role of families in deceased organ donation.

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