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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Temidayo Akenroye ◽  
Jonathan D. Owens ◽  
Adekunle Sabitu Oyegoke ◽  
Jamal Elbaz ◽  
H.M. Belal ◽  
...  

Purpose This study aims to examine the causes of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) disinclination towards subcontracting in public sector markets. Previous studies have revealed that UK SMEs are reluctant to do business with the public sector through the subcontracting route, but the reasons for this lack of enthusiasm have not been widely researched. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on semi-structured interviews with SMEs competing for public contracts in North West England, a qualitative study was performed, from which several themes emerged. Findings The findings were synthesised into a framework underpinned by attribution theory, to portray situationally and dispositionally caused factors that were used to interpret SMEs’ behaviour. Social implications The findings can guide policy development and government interventions in developed and developing countries, aimed at using public procurement as a policy tool to develop the small business sector. Originality/value This paper contributes in a unique way to an emerging discourse on how subcontracting can facilitate the access of SMEs to government procurement spending. It adds to knowledge regarding the explanatory power of attribution theory – from its base in social psychology.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yingyu Zhong ◽  
Yingying Zhang ◽  
Meng Luo ◽  
Jiayue Wei ◽  
Shiyang Liao ◽  
...  

Purpose Grounding the research in the stimulus-organism-resource (S-O-R) framework, this study aims to address the research gap of explaining and predicting the relationship between price discounts, interactivity and professionalism on college students’ purchasing intention in live-streaming shopping. It also attempts to understand if trust plays the role of mediator in the effect of these relationships. Design/methodology/approach This study collected data using a questionnaire protocol adapted and refined from the original scales in existing studies. The partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze data collected from 258 college students in China. Other than assessing the path model’s explanatory power, this study examined the model’s predictive power toward predicting new cases using PLS predict. Findings Results indicated that all three predictors have a positive significant relationship with trust, while only price discounts demonstrate a significant relationship with purchase intention. Simultaneously, the mediation results provide support to the S-O-R framework demonstrating that external factors (professionalism, interactivity and price discounts) can arouse organism (trust), which in return, generate a behavioral outcome (purchase intention). Originality/value This study is the first few studies that focus on college students’ behavioral responses in an online shopping environment. At the same time, this is the first study supplement the explanatory perspective with a predictive focus, which is of particular importance in making sound recommendations on managerial decision-making.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rui Li ◽  
Daoyong Pan ◽  
Songtao Lu

Abstract Background: During the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, the extension of college students' time spent studying at home changed their physical exercise behavior and affected the physical activity behavior of the whole family.Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,582 college students using a specific measurement scale. A total of 305 urban college students were selected as research subjects. SPSS24.0 and AMOS24.0 were used for statistical analysis.Results: During the COVID-19 transmission period, the pair correlation coefficients of exercise behavior, exercise attitude, and family exercise conditions were 0.63, 0.36, and 0.25, respectively. The influence on family exercise behavior is as follows: college students' exercise behavior (0.403), family exercise support (0.329), and college students' exercise attitude (0.257). The most significant influence on family exercise support is college students' exercise attitude (0.509). The regression model of family exercise behavior standardization had 0.74 and 0.44 explanatory power to family exercise behavior and family exercise support, respectively.Conclusions: The individual-level interventions were assessed by considering the interaction between individual exercise behavior and individual factors. In addition, the exercise environment exhibited a regulatory role and should be controlled. At the interpersonal level, the communication of the college students regarding exercise behavior was bidirectional. Exercise support for family members is an important factor affecting two-way communication and has a significant effect. With the development of the exercise behavior theory, the interaction between individuals is the origin of the spread of group behavior. The data suggest that instead of one-way influence two-way influence mechanisms should be proposed to assess the transformation from the individual to group exercise behavior.


Author(s):  
Youngbin Lym ◽  
Hyobin Lym ◽  
Keekwang Kim ◽  
Ki-Jung Kim

This study aims provide understanding of the local-level spatiotemporal evolution of COVID-19 spread across capital regions of South Korea during the second and third waves of the pandemic (August 2020~June 2021). To explain transmission, we rely upon the local safety level indices along with latent influences from the spatial alignment of municipalities and their serial (temporal) correlation. Utilizing a flexible hierarchical Bayesian model as an analytic operational framework, we exploit the modified BYM (BYM2) model with the Penalized Complexity (PC) priors to account for latent effects (unobserved heterogeneity). The outcome reveals that a municipality with higher population density is likely to have an elevated infection risk, whereas one with good preparedness for infectious disease tends to have a reduction in risk. Furthermore, we identify that including spatial and temporal correlations into the modeling framework significantly improves the performance and explanatory power, justifying our adoption of latent effects. Based on these findings, we present the dynamic evolution of COVID-19 across the Seoul Capital Area (SCA), which helps us verify unique patterns of disease spread as well as regions of elevated risk for further policy intervention and for supporting informed decision making for responding to infectious diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Ange Wang ◽  
Hongzhi Guan ◽  
Jun Guo ◽  
Yan Han ◽  
Hangjin Bian

Shared parking has become the most effective way to utilize existing parking resources. Little attention has been focused on drivers’ intention to use shared parking spaces in residential areas considering individual heterogeneity. To fill this gap, this paper explores the influencing factors and mechanism of shared parking use intention (SPUI) and further studies the preferences for the shared parking of different types of drivers. Firstly, based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology that includes psychological factors, personal attributes, and travel characteristics, the multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) model was employed for parameter estimation and model assessment. Secondly, using MIMIC’s output results as input variables, the segmentation method of the latent class model (LCM) was adopted to explore drivers’ preferences regarding SPUI. Finally, a quantitative study was carried out through questionnaire data. The empirical results show that: (a) the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology has good explanatory power for SPUI. SPUI is directly affected by perceived risk (PR), behavioral habit (BH), social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FCs), and effort expectancy (EE), while performance expectancy (PE) have no significant effect on SPUI. In addition, some factors of personal attributes and travel characteristics affect SPUI through psychological factors. (b) According to individual heterogeneity, the surveyed driver groups are divided into four segments: sensitive type (36%), conservative type (29.6%), neutral type (24.5%), and approved type (9.9%), respectively. There are significant differences in psychological observation variables such as EE, PE, FC, and SI among the four segments of drivers. According to the influence mechanism of psychological factors and preferences analysis of different types of drivers, the shared parking promotion strategy can be formulated from the aspects of management, operation, and technology.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hyegyeong Cha ◽  
Sisook Kim ◽  
Yedong Son

Early detection is important for delaying or preventing cognitive impairment. Since olfactory dysfunction and depression are common symptoms of cognitive dysfunction, they may serve as measurable risk indicators. This study was designed to identify the relationship between olfaction, depression, and each domain of cognitive function in elderly dementia patients in South Korea. Study participants were 108 patients who visited the outpatient clinic between March and September 2019. More significant impairment of olfactory function was found in those with mild (7.48 ± 1.28) or moderate (7.37 ± 2.22) test scores of the Expanded Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale than in those with questionable scores (20.58 ± 6.18). The language domain of cognitive function, age, and education level showed 39.2% explanatory power for olfactory function (F = 5.591, p < 0.001). It is expected that assessment of olfactory function in elderly people can lead to the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of dementia. Furthermore, it is important for future studies to confirm the relationship between each domain of cognitive function and olfactory function according to the type of dementia and to establish criteria for screening dementia in order to utilize olfactory function as a clinical marker.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Author(s):  
Michael Forzeh Fossung ◽  
Samuel Tanjeh Mukah ◽  
Kueda Wamba Berthelo ◽  
Motika Eubert Nsai

This study examines the effect of agency theory on the demand for external audit quality in Cameroon. Specifically, it looks at the impact of shareholder/manager agency cost, shareholders/creditors agency cost, and majority/minority shareholders agency cost on external audit quality demand in Cameroon. The focus is on a sample of 171 companies drawn from the regions of Littoral, Centre and North-West using questionnaires. We assess the explanatory power of agency theory on the demand for a better quality of audit in the Cameroonian context by modelling external audit quality as a function of agency costs. The logistic regression analysis allows us to study the nature of any possible interaction. The analysis shows that while an increase in shareholder/creditor agency cost and an increase in shareholder/manager agency cost negatively affect the demand for audit quality, the majority/minority agency cost and the size of the audited client positively and significantly affect the demand for audit quality.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Modugno ◽  
S. C. M. Johnson ◽  
P. Borrelli ◽  
E. Alam ◽  
N. Bezak ◽  
...  

AbstractDecision-making plays a key role in reducing landslide risk and preventing natural disasters. Land management, recovery of degraded lands, urban planning, and environmental protection in general are fundamental for mitigating landslide hazard and risk. Here, we present a GIS-based multi-scale approach to highlight where and when a country is affected by a high probability of landslide occurrence. In the first step, a landslide human exposure equation is developed considering the landslide susceptibility triggered by rain as hazard, and the population density as exposed factor. The output, from this overview analysis, is a global GIS layer expressing the number of potentially affected people by month, where the monthly rain is used to weight the landslide hazard. As following step, Logistic Regression (LR) analysis was implemented at a national and local level. The Receiver Operating Characteristic indicator is used to understand the goodness of a LR model. The LR models are defined by a dependent variable, presence–absence of landslide points, versus a set of independent environmental variables. The results demonstrate the relevance of a multi-scale approach, at national level the biophysical variables are able to detect landslide hotspot areas, while at sub-regional level geomorphological aspects, like land cover, topographic wetness, and local climatic condition have greater explanatory power.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Birgitta Dresp-Langley

In the field theories in physics, any particular region of the presumed space-time continuum and all interactions between elementary objects therein can be objectively measured and/or accounted for mathematically. Since this does not apply to any of the field theories, or any other neural theory, of consciousness, their explanatory power is limited. As discussed in detail herein, the matter is complicated further by the facts than any scientifically operational definition of consciousness is inevitably partial, and that the phenomenon has no spatial dimensionality. Under the light of insights from research on meditation and expanded consciousness, chronic pain syndrome, healthy aging, and eudaimonic well-being, we may conceive consciousness as a source of potential energy that has no clearly defined spatial dimensionality, but can produce significant changes in others and in the world, observable in terms of changes in time. It is argued that consciousness may have evolved to enable the human species to generate such changes in order to cope with unprecedented and/or unpredictable adversity. Such coping could, ultimately, include the conscious planning of our own extinction when survival on the planet is no longer an acceptable option.


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