policy development
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Temidayo Akenroye ◽  
Jonathan D. Owens ◽  
Adekunle Sabitu Oyegoke ◽  
Jamal Elbaz ◽  
H.M. Belal ◽  

Purpose This study aims to examine the causes of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) disinclination towards subcontracting in public sector markets. Previous studies have revealed that UK SMEs are reluctant to do business with the public sector through the subcontracting route, but the reasons for this lack of enthusiasm have not been widely researched. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on semi-structured interviews with SMEs competing for public contracts in North West England, a qualitative study was performed, from which several themes emerged. Findings The findings were synthesised into a framework underpinned by attribution theory, to portray situationally and dispositionally caused factors that were used to interpret SMEs’ behaviour. Social implications The findings can guide policy development and government interventions in developed and developing countries, aimed at using public procurement as a policy tool to develop the small business sector. Originality/value This paper contributes in a unique way to an emerging discourse on how subcontracting can facilitate the access of SMEs to government procurement spending. It adds to knowledge regarding the explanatory power of attribution theory – from its base in social psychology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 139-150

Planning of water resources and its management with the ambiguity and non-uniformity accompanying with precipitation and other meteorological physical characteristics may perhaps effect on agricultural production in Bihar where the farmers mostly depend on precipitation. The precipitation and potential evapotranspiration temporal distribution of the state is irregular due to geomorphology, climatic and other anthropogenic factors of the state. In the present study, attempt is taken to expose the best-fit probability distribution among the various available probability distribution of annual average precipitation and potential evapotranspiration based on 102 year of past records of all 37 districts of the state. On the basis of ranks of goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov Smirnov, Anderson Darling and Chi-Squared, the normal distribution was observed the best-fit probability distribution for 11 districts followed by Weibull (3P) for 9 districts, the Beta distribution for 5 districts and other distribution for rest districts for precipitation. Whereas Cauchy distribution was come out with the best-fit probability distribution for potential evapotranspiration for all districts and the second best was Gamma (3P) covering almost 60% of the total districts followed by General Extreme Value distribution (32%). The results can be used in future hydraulic design, hydrological study for estimation of return period and water resource planners for policy development.  

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Niki Rust ◽  
Ole Erik Lunder ◽  
Sara Iversen ◽  
Steven Vella ◽  
Elizabeth A. Oughton ◽  

Soil quality is declining in many parts of the world, with implications for the productivity, resilience and sustainability of agri-food systems. Research suggests multiple causes of soil degradation with no single solution and a divided stakeholder opinion on how to manage this problem. However, creating socially acceptable and effective policies to halt soil degradation requires engagement with a diverse range of stakeholders who possess different and complementary knowledge, experiences and perspectives. To understand how British and Norwegian agricultural stakeholders perceived the causes of and solutions to soil degradation, we used Q-methodology with 114 respondents, including farmers, scientists and agricultural advisers. For the UK, respondents thought the causes were due to loss of soil structure, soil erosion, compaction and loss of organic matter; the perceived solutions were to develop more collaborative research between researchers and farmers, invest in training, improve trust between farmers and regulatory agencies, and reduce soil compaction. In Norway, respondents thought soils were degrading due to soil erosion, monocultures and loss of soil structure; they believed the solutions were to reduce compaction, increase rotation and invest in agricultural training. There was an overarching theme related to industrialised agriculture being responsible for declining soil quality in both countries. We highlight potential areas for land use policy development in Norway and the UK, including multi-actor approaches that may improve the social acceptance of these policies. This study also illustrates how Q-methodology may be used to co-produce stakeholder-driven policy options to address land degradation.

2022 ◽  
Jeanna Parsons Leigh ◽  
Chloe DeGrood ◽  
Alexandra Dodds ◽  
Francesca Rubulotta ◽  
Emily A. FitzGerald ◽  

Abstract Purpose To understand critical care physician experiences across multiple countries with the COVID-19 pandemic to inform future pandemic preparedness planning. Methods In this qualitative study, 16 critical care physicians (from seven countries) identified in convenience, purposive sampling took part in individual semi-structured interviews from April 7, 2020 to August 27, 2020 that captured the first wave of the pandemic. Open coding was conducted by two researchers who facilitated inductive thematic analysis. Results Key themes identified following thematic analysis included: 1) sourcing and implementation of trusted information; 2) health systems-level preparedness with accessible supports; 3) institutional adaptations including changes to patient care; 4) professional safety and occupational wellbeing; 5) triage and restricted visitation policies; and 6) managing personal familial responsibilities. Conclusion Perspectives of critical care physicians are important for ongoing pandemic planning and should be included in future pandemic policy development.

Hua Wang ◽  
Naveen Adusumilli ◽  
Michael Blazier ◽  
Santosh Pathak

AbstractForest owners face many challenges regarding forest management due to the long period from planting to harvest. Along with the economic and environmental factors that influence management actions, the owners' attitude to risk plays a crucial role in forest management decisions. This study shows that understanding the effects of the owner's risk preference for management actions is an important step to form an effective forest policy. The objectives of the study are to (1) assess the economic advantage of forest management alternatives over a range of risk aversion coefficients and (2) determine the financial incentive (risk premium) corresponding to a forest owners' risk attitude. We implemented the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function framework to evaluate a set of fertilization, herbicide, and thinning management alternatives at mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations in Louisiana. Results from this study indicate that forest owner's risk preference affects their decision to select management actions. Financial incentives are substantially different for specific management alternatives between risk-neutral and risk-averse forest owners. The results can guide forest policy development where agencies can modify financial assistance programs to improve the adoption of management actions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 68-86
Waseem Ahmed

Sustainable Development Goals are a set of seventeen interconnected objectives to achieve a sustainable future for all. They take a holistic and multidimensional approach to development to alter our planet by addressing humanity's many difficulties. It is an essential component of all aspects of inclusive and long-term growth. Women need to have equal rights and opportunities and live without fear of prejudice or violence. Goal five expressly mentions gender equality as one of the SDGs. Discriminatory laws must be changed and legislation enacted to advance equality proactively to achieve the goals. Gender-based violence is a top priority for governments all across the world. India is dedicated to promoting equality for all of its residents. The Indian Constitution's Preamble, Fundamental Rights, and State Policy Directive Principles express a strong commitment to gender equality. Also, India is the signatory of UN Conventions like CEDAW, where its pledge towards gender justice is evident. Furthermore, India has incorporated various domestic laws in pursuance of its responsibility towards Gender Justice. However, in India, Discrimination against women remains a profound issue despite reforms in various laws and different policies. Several concerns like female labor force participation, crimes against women, education among women, and discrimination are evident.  This paper mainly throws light on the status of Gender Justice in India. It will help the stakeholders working on SDGs and Gender justice in policy development. It will highlight the gains and gaps that India has so far accomplished and encountered. 

Anastasia Lucy Yang ◽  
N Raghuram ◽  
Tapan Kumar Adhya ◽  
Stephen D. Porter ◽  
Ananta Narayan Panda ◽  

Abstract Assessing and managing nitrogen sustainably is imperative for achieving the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targeted for 2030. South Asian countries, aware of the environmental and health impacts of nitrogen pollution, regionally as well as globally, piloted the 2019 UN resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management, calling for urgent policy action. This paper assists South Asia policy development by providing new insights into nitrogen-related policies in the region; it makes a step-change advance on an existing global analysis and database. We built on available methods to better identify, classify and analyse 966 nitrogen-related policies for the region. We compared the global and regional nitrogen policy landscapes to explain the benefits of a deeper policy assessment. The policies we classified as having ‘higher’ relevance – those with direct reference to nitrogen and/or its potential impacts – represent the current nitrogen policy landscape for South Asia. We show that a small proportion of policies (9%) consider multiple pollution sources, sectors, nitrogen threats and impacts, with integrative policy instruments. 5% of policies also consider both non-point and point sources of pollution, representing standout policies. More such policies with an integrated approach are vital in addressing the complexities of nitrogen pollution. Adapting existing and drafting new policies are both required to deal with other current and emerging nitrogen issues. Our analysis provides evidence for a roadmap for sustainable nitrogen policy in South Asia and beyond and supports efforts to reduce the threats posed by nitrogen pollution to achieve the SDGs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21

Abstract This study aims to deepen our understanding of social investment expansion proposing a political learning mechanism to link existing institutional and political explanations. When resources are limited, increased spending in social investment often comes at the expense of politically costly retrenchment of established social insurance policies. Previous studies suggest that this trade-off results in existing entitlements crowding out new policies, and that party ideology plays less of a role in determining social policy expansion. I argue that this is because parties face an electoral dilemma, as individual preferences for social investment and social insurance have been shown to differ between groups that partly overlap in their voting behaviour. Applying a policy diffusion framework to the analysis of childcare expenditure, this study proposes that policymakers learn from the political consequences of past decisions made by their foreign counterparts and update their policy choice accordingly. The econometric analysis of OECD data on childcare expenditure shows that governments tend to make spending decisions that follow those of ideologically similar cabinets abroad and that left-wing governments with a divided electorate tend to reduce childcare expenditure if a previous expansionary decision of a foreign incumbent is followed by an electoral defeat. The findings have implications for the study of the politics of social policy development.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tahleho Tseole ◽  
Ngoako Solomon Marutha

Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate a framework for knowledge retention to support business continuity in cross-border mergers of the telecommunications industry in Lesotho. Design/methodology/approach This study applied a qualitative case study, with data collected through interviews from a purposively selected sample of staff members who held managerial positions. Information in this study was partially extracted from the PhD thesis of Dr Tseole ET supervised by Prof Ngulube P at the University of South Africa completed in 2021. Findings The study discovered that a considerable amount of knowledge may have been lost because employees who either left the organisation or those who were apparently forced to resign during the process had left without any proper knowledge retention arrangements. Research limitations/implications The framework proposed in this study may be used in framing future studies as a theoretical framework. The study also provides new literature for review and discussion of background in future related studies. Practical implications The framework provided in the study may be used as a benchmark in the knowledge management industry and/or organisations for policy development or improvements and implementation of knowledge retention strategies. Social implications Through recommendations and framework provided by this study, organisations will be able to improve their services to their sphere of influence in the surrounding communities. So, community will be receiving an improved and good service at all the times. Originality/value A framework for facilitating knowledge retention in the cross-border mergers of the telecommunications industry is therefore proposed and the researchers believe it will be helpful to the organisation for improving knowledge retention going forward, particularly in the merger process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 36
Leona Konieczny

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on long term care (LTC) have been published in the literature and experienced by residents, their support persons and nursing staff. The morbidity and mortality, as well as the threats of isolation and psychosocial distress continue. Both LTC residents and staff experience physiological and psychological impacts. Nurses can use the current threats produced by the pandemic to advocate for alternate models of care and reduced isolation for residents. The pandemic is an opportunity for nursing advocacy in LTC for shared governance and empowerment, involvement in policy development, and oversight in policy implementation. Nurses are presented with the opportunities for advocacy related to resources and reshaping the paradigm of residential care for older adults.

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