Flow And Transport
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Herman Szűcs

Porous materials can be found in numerous areas of life (e. g., applied science, material science), however, the simulation of the fluid flow and transport phenomena through porous media is a significant challenge nowadays. Numerical simulations can help to analyze and understand physical processes and different phenomena in the porous structure, as well as to determine certain parameters that are difficult or impossible to measure directly or can only be determined by expensive and time-consuming experiments. The basic condition for the numerical simulations is the 3D geometric model of the porous material sample, which is the input parameter of the simulation. For this reason, geometry reconstruction is highly critical for pore-scale analysis. This paper introduces a complex process for the preparation of the microstructure's geometry in connection with a coupled FEM-CFD two-way fluid-structure interaction simulation. Micro-CT has been successfully applied to reconstruct both the fluid and solid phases of the used porous material.

Rajeeva Pandian Navaneeth Krishna ◽  
Abhishek Jain

BACKGROUND: Almost 95% of the venous valves are micron scale found in veins smaller than 300μm diameter. The fluid dynamics of blood flow and transport through these micro venous valves and their contribution to thrombosis is not yet well understood or characterized due to difficulty in making direct measurements in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The unique flow patterns that may arise in physiological and pathological non-actuating micro venous valves are predicted. METHODS: Computational fluid and transport simulations are used to model blood flow and oxygen gradients in a microfluidic vein. RESULTS: The model successfully recreates the typical non-Newtonian vortical flow within the valve cusps seen in preclinical experimental models and in clinic. The analysis further reveals variation in the vortex strengths due to temporal changes in blood flow. The cusp oxygen is typically low from the main lumen, and it is regulated by systemic venous flow. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis leads to a clinically-relevant hypothesis that micro venous valves may not create a hypoxic environment needed for endothelial inflammation, which is one of the main causes of thrombosis. However, incompetent micro venous valves are still locations for complex fluid dynamics of blood leading to low shear regions that may contribute to thrombosis through other pathways.

Boris Faybishenko ◽  
Yifeng Wang ◽  
Jon Harrington ◽  
Elena Tamayo-Mas ◽  
Jens Birkholzer ◽  

AbstractUnderstanding gas migration in compacted clay materials, e.g., bentonite and claystone, is important for the design and performance assessment of an engineered barrier system of a radioactive waste repository system, as well as many practical applications. Existing field and laboratory data on gas migration processes in low-permeability clay materials demonstrate the complexity of flow and transport processes, including various types of instabilities, caused by nonlinear dynamics of coupled processes of liquid–gas exchange, dilation, fracturing, fracture healing, etc., which cannot be described by classical models of fluid dynamics in porous media. We here show that the complexity of gas migration processes can be explained using a phenomenological concept of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos theory. To do so, we analyzed gas pressure and gas influx (i.e., input) and outflux (i.e., output), recorded during the gas injection experiment in the compact Mx80-D bentonite sample, and calculated a set of the diagnostic parameters of nonlinear dynamics and chaos, such a global embedding dimension, a correlation dimension, an information dimension, and a spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, as well as plotted 2D and 3D pseudo-phase-space strange attractors, based on the univariate influx and outflux time series data. These results indicate the presence of phenomena of low-dimensional deterministic chaotic behavior of gas migration in bentonite. In particular, during the onset of gas influx in the bentonite core, before the breakthrough, the development of gas flow pathways is characterized by the process of chaotic gas diffusion. After the breakthrough, with inlet-to-outlet movement of gas, the prevailing process is chaotic advection. During the final phase of the experiment, with no influx to the sample, the relaxation pattern of gas outflux is resumed back to a process of chaotic diffusion. The types of data analysis and a proposed phenomenological model can be used to establish the basic principles of experimental data-gathering, modeling predictions, and a research design.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261678
Mingkun Pang ◽  
Tianjun Zhang ◽  
Lu Gao ◽  
Binfeng Qin

The accurate determination of permeability is one of the parameters essential for the study of fluid flow and transport state. However, a large number of fractured coal bodies are faced during the production of coal mines. The study of permeability of these special media composed of grains of a certain size, whose structure is different from that of raw coal, has been in the exploratory stage. In this paper, inspired by the calculation method of median particle size and the calculation principle of KC’s equation, we calculate the permeability parameters of broken coal particles. It is considered that its permeability is closely related to the compaction and re-crushing process of skeletal grains. The lateral limit compression test of the crushed coal body was designed, and the pore-dominated permeability calculation method was given to reveal the mechanism of the action of the effective stress. The dependence relationship between the effective stress and the pore-correlation permeability is obtained by data analysis, and the force and deformation process of the crushed coal grain media is described. In contrast to the conventional Darcy series of permeability discussions, our approach excludes the influence of fluid factors on the permeability of porous media. The permeability of porous media is considered to be determined only by its own pore structure.

2021 ◽  
Syamil Mohd Razak ◽  
Jodel Cornelio ◽  
Atefeh Jahandideh ◽  
Behnam Jafarpour ◽  
Young Cho ◽  

Abstract The physics of fluid flow and transport processes in hydraulically fractured unconventional reservoirs are not well understood. As a result, the predicted production behavior using conventional simulation often does not agree with the observed field performance data. The discrepancy is caused by potential errors in the simulation model and the physical processes that take place in complex fractured rocks subjected to hydraulic fracturing. Additionally, other field data such as well logs and drilling parameters containing important information about reservoir condition and reservoir characteristics are not conveniently integrated into existing simulation models. In this paper, we discuss the development of a deep learning model to learn the errors in simulation-based performance prediction in unconventional reservoirs. Once trained, the model is expected to forecast the performance response of a well by augmenting physics-based predictions with the learned prediction errors from the deep learning model. To learn the discrepancy between simulated and observed production data, a simulation dataset is generated by using formation, completion, and fluid properties as input to an imperfect physics-based simulation model. The difference between the resulting simulated responses and observed field data, together with collected field data (i.e. well logs, drilling parameters), is then used to train a deep learning model to learn the prediction errors of the imperfect physical model. Deep convolutional autoencoder architectures are used to map the simulated and observed production responses into a low-dimensional manifold, where a regression model is trained to learn the mapping between collected field data and the simulated data in the latent space. The proposed method leverages deep learning models to account for prediction errors originating from potentially missing physical phenomena, simulation inputs, and reservoir description. We illustrate our approach using a case study from the Bakken Play in North Dakota.

Balázs Németh ◽  
Péter Gáspár ◽  
Zsuzsanna Bede

The paper provides a detailed analysis of the impact of automated vehicles using eco-cruise control system on the traffic flow. The speed profiles of vehicles using eco-cruise control system generally differ from those of conventional human-driven vehicles. The characteristics of the traffic flow on macroscopic traffic level combine both automated and human-driven vehicles. In the simulation-based analysis the effects of traffic volume and the ratio of the automated vehicles are in the focus. Based on the results the analysis an extension of the eco-cruise control is also proposed, in which the balance between the traffic flow and transport efficiency is achieved.

2021 ◽  
Tetsu K Tokunaga ◽  
Jiamin Wan ◽  
Phuong Anh Tran ◽  
Wenming Dong ◽  
Alexander Newman ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 932 ◽  
L.C. Auton ◽  
S. Pramanik ◽  
M.P. Dalwadi ◽  
C.W. MacMinn ◽  
I.M. Griffiths

A major challenge in flow through porous media is to better understand the link between microstructure and macroscale flow and transport. For idealised microstructures, the mathematical framework of homogenisation theory can be used for this purpose. Here, we consider a two-dimensional microstructure comprising an array of obstacles of smooth but arbitrary shape, the size and spacing of which can vary along the length of the porous medium. We use homogenisation via the method of multiple scales to systematically upscale a novel problem involving cells of varying area to obtain effective continuum equations for macroscale flow and transport. The equations are characterised by the local porosity, a local anisotropic flow permeability, an effective local anisotropic solute diffusivity and an effective local adsorption rate. These macroscale properties depend non-trivially on the two degrees of microstructural geometric freedom in our problem: obstacle size and obstacle spacing. We exploit this dependence to construct and compare scenarios where the same porosity profile results from different combinations of obstacle size and spacing. We focus on a simple example geometry comprising circular obstacles on a rectangular lattice, for which we numerically determine the macroscale permeability and effective diffusivity. We investigate scenarios where the porosity is spatially uniform but the permeability and diffusivity are not. Our results may be useful in the design of filters or for studying the impact of deformation on transport in soft porous media.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (12) ◽  
pp. 126601
Yilin Chen ◽  
Guangqiu Jin ◽  
Pei Zhang ◽  
Qihao Jiang ◽  
Silin Wu ◽  

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