Fluid Flow
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2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2110776118
Masaoki Uno ◽  
Kodai Koyanagawa ◽  
Hisamu Kasahara ◽  
Atsushi Okamoto ◽  
Noriyoshi Tsuchiya

Hydration and carbonation reactions within the Earth cause an increase in solid volume by up to several tens of vol%, which can induce stress and rock fracture. Observations of naturally hydrated and carbonated peridotite suggest that permeability and fluid flow are enhanced by reaction-induced fracturing. However, permeability enhancement during solid-volume–increasing reactions has not been achieved in the laboratory, and the mechanisms of reaction-accelerated fluid flow remain largely unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence of significant permeability enhancement by volume-increasing reactions under confining pressure. The hydromechanical behavior of hydration of sintered periclase [MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2] depends mainly on the initial pore-fluid connectivity. Permeability increased by three orders of magnitude for low-connectivity samples, whereas it decreased by two orders of magnitude for high-connectivity samples. Permeability enhancement was caused by hierarchical fracturing of the reacting materials, whereas a decrease was associated with homogeneous pore clogging by the reaction products. These behaviors suggest that the fluid flow rate, relative to reaction rate, is the main control on hydromechanical evolution during volume-increasing reactions. We suggest that an extremely high reaction rate and low pore-fluid connectivity lead to local stress perturbations and are essential for reaction-induced fracturing and accelerated fluid flow during hydration/carbonation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Robert T. Brady ◽  
Fergal J. O’Brien ◽  
David A. Hoey

Bone is a dynamic organ that can adapt its structure to meet the demands of its biochemical and biophysical environment. Osteocytes form a sensory network throughout the tissue and orchestrate tissue adaptation via the release of soluble factors such as a sclerostin. Osteocyte physiology has traditionally been challenging to investigate due to the uniquely mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone leading to the development of osteocyte cell lines. Importantly, the most widely researched and utilized osteocyte cell line: the MLO-Y4, is limited by its inability to express sclerostin (Sost gene) in typical in-vitro culture. We theorised that culture in an environment closer to the in vivo osteocyte environment could impact on Sost expression. Therefore, this study investigated the role of composition and dimensionality in directing Sost expression in MLO-Y4 cells using collagen-based ECM analogues. A significant outcome of this study is that MLO-Y4 cells, when cultured on a hydroxyapatite (HA)-containing two-dimensional (2D) film analogue, expressed Sost. Moreover, three-dimensional (3D) culture within HA-containing collagen scaffolds significantly enhanced Sost expression, demonstrating the impact of ECM composition and dimensionality on MLO-Y4 behaviour. Importantly, in this bone mimetic ECM environment, Sost expression was found to be comparable to physiological levels. Lastly, MLO-Y4 cells cultured in these novel conditions responded accordingly to fluid flow stimulation with a decrease in expression. This study therefore presents a novel culture system for the MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line, ensuring the expression of an important osteocyte specific gene, Sost, overcoming a major limitation of this model.

Muhammad Yasir ◽  
Awais Ahmed ◽  
Masood Khan ◽  
M. Munawwar Iqbal Ch ◽  
Muhammad Ayub

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Ridhwan Reyaz ◽  
Ahmad Qushairi Mohamad ◽  
Yeou Jiann Lim ◽  
Muhammad Saqib ◽  
Sharidan Shafie

Fractional derivatives have been proven to showcase a spectrum of solutions that is useful in the fields of engineering, medical, and manufacturing sciences. Studies on the application of fractional derivatives on fluid flow are relatively new, especially in analytical studies. Thus, geometrical representations for fractional derivatives in the mechanics of fluid flows are yet to be discovered. Nonetheless, theoretical studies will be useful in facilitating future experimental studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to showcase an analytical solution on the impact of the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative for a magnethohydrodynamic (MHD) Casson fluid flow with thermal radiation and chemical reaction. Analytical solutions are obtained via Laplace transform through compound functions. The obtained solutions are first verified, then analysed. It is observed from the study that variations in the fractional derivative parameter, α, exhibits a transitional behaviour of fluid between unsteady state and steady state. Numerical analyses on skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number were also analysed. Behaviour of these three properties were in agreement of that from past literature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
Andreas Wittke ◽  
Nikolaus Gussone ◽  
Dominik Derigs ◽  
Barbara M. A. Teichert

AbstractFluid flow and carbonate recrystallization rates of deep-sea sediments from eight locations in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific were determined by using δ44/40Ca values of pore water and corresponding sediments. The studied drill sites of IODP Exp. 320/321 are located along a transect of decreasing crustal age and reveal different characteristic pore water depth profiles. The younger sites show an overall isotopic equilibration with the sediment in the upper part of the sedimentary column. In the lower part, the δ44/40Ca of the pore water increases back to seawater-like values at the sediment/basalt interface, forming a bulge-shaped pore water profile. The magnitude of the δ44/40Ca pore water bulge decreases with increasing age of the oceanic crust and sediment cover, resulting in seawater-like δ44/40Ca values throughout the sedimentary column in the oldest Sites U1331 and U1332. These findings indicate a seawater-like fluid input from the underlying crust into the sediment. Thus, after sedimentation, carbonate recrystallization processes start to enrich the pore water in 40Ca, and after a time of carbonate recrystallization and cooling of oceanic crust, a flow of seawater-like fluid starts to move upwards through the sedimentary column, enriching the pore water with 44Ca. We established a carbonate recrystallization and fluid flow model to quantify these processes. Our determined carbonate recrystallization rates between 0.000013e(−t/15.5) and 0.00038e(−t/100.5) and fluid flow rates in the range of 0.42–19 m*Myr−1 indicate that the fluid flow within the investigated sites of IODP Exp. 320/321 depends on the sedimentary composition and location of the specific site, especially the proximity to a recharge or discharge site of a hydrothermal convection cell.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
A. B. Vishalakshi ◽  
U. S. Mahabaleshwar ◽  
Ioannis E. Sarris

In the present paper, an MHD three-dimensional non-Newtonian fluid flow over a porous stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of mass transpiration and thermal radiation is examined. This problem mainly focusses on an analytical solution; graphene water is immersed in the flow of a fluid to enhance the thermal efficiency. The given non-linear PDEs are mapped into ODEs via suitable transformations, then the solution is obtained in terms of incomplete gamma function. The momentum equation is analyzed, and to derive the mass transpiration analytically, this mass transpiration is used in the heat transfer analysis and to find the analytical results with a Biot number. Physical significance parameters, including volume fraction, skin friction, mass transpiration, and thermal radiation, can be analyzed with the help of graphical representations. We indicate the unique solution at stretching sheet and multiple solution at shrinking sheet. The physical scenario can be understood with the help of different physical parameters, namely a Biot number, magnetic parameter, inverse Darcy number, Prandtl number, and thermal radiation; these physical parameters control the analytical results. Graphene nanoparticles are used to analyze the present study, and the value of the Prandtl number is fixed to 6.2. The graphical representations help to discuss the results of the present work. This problem is used in many industrial applications such as Polymer extrusion, paper production, metal cooling, glass blowing, etc. At the end of this work, we found that the velocity and temperature profile increases with the increasing values of the viscoelastic parameter and solid volume fraction; additionally, efficiency is increased for higher values of thermal radiation.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 536
Magdalena Piasecka ◽  
Artur Piasecki ◽  
Norbert Dadas

The present work describes an experimental study and CFD modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a heat sink with several asymmetrical heated mini-channels. The data from the experimental research were the basis for numerical calculations. During experiments, the temperature measurement of the outer heater surface was performed by infrared thermography to verify the results of numerical calculations performed in Simcenter STAR-CCM+ software. The main objective was to determine the values of the parameters tested to evaluate the intensity of the heat transfer processes. In the numerical simulations, important variables, mainly the working fluid, heater material, the spatial orientation of the test section, and the number of mini-channels, were assumed. The results of the numerical computations were discussed. Due to simulations, it was possible to indicate which parameters tested in terms of heat transfer turned out to be the most effective. Furthermore, a mesh dependency analysis based on the grid convergence index (GCI) was performed. The residuals, as good indicators of convergence, achieved low values. Generally, the data presented showed satisfactory convergence of the results achieved as a result of the computational procedure.

2022 ◽  
Shohei Sakaida ◽  
Iuliia Pakhotina ◽  
Ding Zhu ◽  
A. D. Hill

Abstract Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) measurements during hydraulic fracturing treatments are used to estimate fluid volume distribution among perforation clusters. DAS is sensitive to the acoustic signal induced by fluid flow in the near-well region during pumping a stage, while DTS is sensitive to temperature variation caused by fluid flow inside the wellbore and in the reservoir. Raw acoustic signal has to be transferred to frequency band energy (FBE) which is defined as the integration of the squared raw measurements in each DAS channel location for a fixed period of time. In order to be used in further interpretation, FBE has to be averaged between several fiber-optic channels for each cluster on each time step. Based on this input, DAS allows us to consider fluid flow through perforation stage by stage during an injection period, and to evaluate the volume of fluid pumped in each cluster location as a function of time, and therefore to estimate the cumulative volume of fluid injected into each cluster. This procedure is based on a lab-derived and computational dynamics model confirmed correlation between the acoustic signal and the flow rate. At each time step, we apply the perforation/fracture noise correlation to determine the flow rate into each cluster, constrained by the requirement that the sum of the flow rates into individual clusters must equal the total injection rate at that time. On the other hand, the DTS interpretation method is based on the transient temperature behavior during the fracturing stimulation. During injection, the temperature of the reservoir surrounding the well is cooled by the injection fluid inside the well. After shut-in of stage pumping, temperature recovers at a rate depending on the injected volume of fluid at the location. The interpretation procedure is based on the temperature behavior during the warm-back period. This temperature distribution is obtained by solution of a coupled 3-D reservoir thermal model with 1-D wellbore thermal model iteratively. Once we confirm that the DAS and DTS interpretation methods provide comparable results of the fluid volume distribution, either of the interpretation results can be used as a known input parameter for the other interpretation method to estimate additional unknown such as one of the fracture properties. In this work, the injected fluid volume distribution obtained by the DAS interpretation is used as an input parameter for a forward model which computes the temperature profile in the reservoir. By conducting temperature inversion to reproduce the temperature profile that matches the measured temperature with the fixed injection rate for each cluster, we can predict distribution of injected fluid for hydraulic fractures along a wellbore. The temperature inversion shows that multiple fractures are created in a swarm pattern from each perforation cluster with a much tighter spacing than the cluster spacing. The field data from MIP-3H provided by the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Laboratory is used to demonstrate the DAS/DTS integrated interpretation method. This approach can be a valuable means to evaluate the fracturing treatment design and further understand the field observation of hydraulic fractures.

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