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Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 264
Author(s):  
Felix M. Carbajal Gamarra ◽  
José C. C. Santana ◽  
Segundo A. V. Llanos ◽  
Jorge A. Heredia Pérez ◽  
Fábio Richard Flausino ◽  
...  

The demand for bromelian and pineapple fruit has been increasing substantially in the world because of their benefits for the human health and use in diverse areas. In this context, this work aimed to study the capacity of higher retention (concentration); bromelain activity underwent ultrafiltration from pineapple juice (Ananas comusus L. Merrill). All assays were carried out at pH 7.0 and 7.5, and at 0.05 and 0.40 bar of transmembrane pressures. Results have shown that at the best operating conditions, between 85 and 87% of bromelain activity was recovered using the plain membrane separation process at 0.05 bar. The ultrafiltration has shown the capacity to retain 100% of proteolytic activity of the bromelain extracted. The samples have kept the same physics properties after ultrafiltration, and the result was verified via electrophoresis. The bromelain enzyme obtained was characterized, and pH 7 and between 30 and 40 °C were the best conditions. Therefore, this work shows that the use of both polymeric membranes has shown high efficiency, and can be used in the purification of bromelain enzymes.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Author(s):  
Abdul Hafeez Nasir ◽  
Rab Nawaz ◽  
Rizwan Haider ◽  
Muhammad Atif Irshad

This study aimed to assess the health effects of emissions released by cement industries and allied activities, such as mining and transportation, in the salt range area of district Chakwal, Pakistan. DISPER was used to estimate dispersion and contribution of source emission by cement industries and allied activities to surface accumulation of selected pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and O3). To assess the long-term effects of pollutants on human health within the radius of 500 m to 3 km, Air Q+ software was used, which was designed by the World Health Organization (WHO). One-year average monitoring data of selected pollutants, coordinates, health data, and population data were used as input data for the model. Data was collected on lung cancer mortality among different age groups (25+ and 30+), infant post-neonatal mortality, mortality due to respiratory disease, and all-cause mortality due to PM2.5 and NO2. Results showed that PM2.5 with the year-long concentration of 27.3 ug/m3 contributes a 9.9% attributable proportion (AP) to lung cancer mortality in adults aged 25+, and 13.8% AP in adults age 30+. Baseline incidence is 44.25% per 100,000 population. PM10 with the year-long concentration of 57.4 ug/m3 contributes 16.96% AP to infant post-neonatal mortality and baseline incidence is 53.86% per 1000 live births in the country. NO2 with the year-long concentration of 14.33 ug/m3 contributes 1.73% AP to all-cause mortality. Results obtained by a simulated 10% reduction in pollutant concentration showed that proper mitigation measures for reduction of pollutants’ concentration should be applied to decrease the rate of mortalities and morbidities. Furthermore, the study showed that PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly impacting the human health in the nearby villages, even after mitigation measures were taken by the selected cement industries. The study provides a roadmap to policymakers and stakeholders for environmental and health risk management in the area.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 459
Author(s):  
Elisabetta Bodo ◽  
Sabina Merlo ◽  
Valentina Bello

Ethylene glycol (EG) and isopropanol (ISO) are among the major toxic alcohols that pose a risk to human health. However, it is important to distinguish them, since EG is more prone to cause renal failure, and can thus be more dangerous when ingested than ISO. Analysis of alcohols such as isopropanol and ethylene glycol generally can be performed with a complex chromatographic method. Here, we present an optical method based on absorption spectroscopy, performed remotely on EG-ISO mixtures filling a microchannel. Mixtures of ethylene glycol in isopropanol at different volume concentrations were analyzed in a contactless manner in a rectangular-section glass micro-capillary provided with integrated reflectors. Fiber-coupled broadband light in the wavelength range 1.3–1.7 µm crossed the microchannel multiple times before being directed towards an optical spectrum analyzer. The induced zig-zag path increased the fluid–light interaction length and enhanced the effect of optical absorption. A sophisticated theoretical model was developed and the results of our simulations were in very good agreement with the results of the experimental spectral measurements. Moreover, from the acquired data, we retrieved a responsivity parameter, defined as power ratio at two wavelengths, that is linearly related to the EG concentration in the alcoholic mixtures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 671
Author(s):  
Eija Yli-Panula ◽  
Eila Jeronen ◽  
Eila Matikainen ◽  
Christel Persson

In the context of landscape, both the natural environment and the built environment can be linked with human health and well-being. This connection has been studied among adults, but no research has been conducted on young people. To fill this gap, this case study aimed to elucidate students’ views on landscapes worth conserving and the landscapes that affect and support their well-being. The participants (n = 538) were Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish students from grades 3–6. The students drew the landscapes they wanted to conserve. The drawn landscapes and the welfare-supporting features they contained were analysed using inductive and abductive content analyses. The students from all three countries preferred water, forest and yard landscapes. In the drawings of natural landscapes, the most recurring themes were sunrise or sunset, forest, beach and mountain landscapes. Physical well-being was manifested in the opportunity to jog and walk. Social well-being was reflected in the presence of friends, relatives and animals. Therapeutically important well-being-related spaces—the so-called green (natural areas), blue (aquatic environments) and white (e.g., snow) areas—were also depicted in the participants’ drawings. It can be concluded that the drawn landscapes reflect several values that promote students’ well-being.


Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 162
Author(s):  
Eleonora Cataldo ◽  
Maddalena Fucile ◽  
Giovan Battista Mattii

Climate change and disproportionate anthropogenic interventions, such as the excess of phytopharmaceutical products and continuous soil tillage, are jeopardizing viticulture by subjecting plants to continuous abiotic stress. One of the main physiological repercussions of abiotic stress is represented by the unbalanced redox homeostasis due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to a state of oxidative stress (detrimental to grape quality). To these are added the direct and indirect damages caused by pathogens (biotic stresses). In light of this scenario, it is inevitable that sustainable techniques and sensitivity approaches for environmental and human health have to be applied in viticulture. Sustainable viticulture can only be made with the aid of sustainable products. Biostimulant (PB) applications (including resistance inducers or elicitors) in the vineyard have become interesting maneuvers for counteracting vine diseases and improving grape quality. These also represent a partial alternative to soil fertilization by improving nutrient absorption and avoiding its leaching into the groundwater. Their role as elicitors has important repercussions in the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by triggering the activation of several enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase (with the accumulation of phenolic compounds). The present review paper summarizes the PBs’ implications in viticulture, gathering historical, functional, and applicative information. This work aims to highlight the innumerable beneficial effects on vines brought by these products. It also serves to spur the scientific community to a greater contribution in investigating the response mechanisms of the plant to positive inductions.


Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Author(s):  
Valeria Russini ◽  
Carlo Corradini ◽  
Maria Laura De Marchis ◽  
Tatiana Bogdanova ◽  
Sarah Lovari ◽  
...  

Foodborne diseases (FBDs) represent a worldwide public health issue, given their spreadability and the difficulty of tracing the sources of contamination. This report summarises the incidence of foodborne pathogens and toxins found in food, environmental and clinical samples collected in relation to diagnosed or suspected FBD cases and submitted between 2018 and 2020 to the Food Microbiology Unit of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana (IZSLT). Data collected from 70 FBD investigations were analysed: 24.3% of them started with an FBD diagnosis, whereas a further 41.4% involved clinical diagnoses based on general symptomatology. In total, 5.6% of the 340 food samples analysed were positive for the presence of a bacterial pathogen, its toxins or both. Among the positive samples, more than half involved meat-derived products. Our data reveal the probable impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of FBD investigations conducted. In spite of the serious impact of FBDs on human health and the economy, the investigation of many foodborne outbreaks fails to identify the source of infection. This indicates a need for the competent authorities to continue to develop and implement a more fully integrated health network.


Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Author(s):  
Chun-Ting Lin ◽  
Ming-Chih Chiu ◽  
Mei-Hwa Kuo

Microplastic pollution is no longer neglected worldwide, as recent studies have unveiled its potential harm to ecosystems and, even worse, to human health. Numerous studies have documented the ubiquity of microplastics, reflecting the necessity of formulating corresponding policies to mitigate the accumulation of microplastics in natural environments. Although anthropogenic activities are generally acknowledged as the primary source of microplastics, a robust approach to identify sources of microplastics is needed to provide scientific suggestions for practical policymaking. This review elucidates recent microplastic studies on various approaches for quantifying or reflecting the degree to which anthropogenic activities contribute to microplastic pollution. Population density (i.e., often used to quantify anthropogenic activities) was not always significantly correlated with microplastic abundance. Furthermore, this review argues that considering potential sources near sample sites as characteristics that may serve to predict the spatial distribution of microplastics in aquatic environments is equivocal. In this vein, a watershed-scale measure that uses land-cover datasets to calculate different percentages of land use in the watershed margins delineated by using Geographic Information System (GIS) software is discussed and suggested. Progress in strategies for quantifying anthropogenic activities is important for guiding future microplastic research and developing effective management policies to prevent microplastic contamination in aquatic ecosystems.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
EditorJournals and Conferences

This article provides information on the morpho-physiological characteristics, chemical composition, especially the amount of alkaloids and vitamins, and their function in the body, as well as thorn bushes, hole field, yarrow plants, which are considered medicinal plants.The article deals with the botanical and morpho-physiological characteristics of the plant Achillea Millefolium L., one of the medicinal plants used in scientific medicine, systematics, some biologically active substances in the chemical composition, especially vitamins and alkaloids, their function in the body and their role in human health. details are given.The following article describes the role of Capparis spinosa L. in modern taxonomy, its distribution, the structure and properties of the most common alkaloids and vitamins in the plant, and its biochemical functions in the human body.The article concludes with a detailed description of the morpho-physiological characteristics of the plant Hypericum Perforatum L., its chemical composition, especially the amount of alkaloids and vitamins and their function in the body and their role in human health.


Author(s):  
Shuochen Jiang ◽  
Bin Du ◽  
Qixia Wu ◽  
Haiwei Zhang ◽  
Youyu Deng ◽  
...  

AbstractCadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soils has become a serious issue owing to its high toxicity threat to human health through the food chain. The purpose of this paper is to explore the availability of foliar selenium (Se) application in reducing Cd enrichment in brown rice. A field experiment from 2017 to 2019 was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar Se application on the physiology and yields of three rice cultivars and their accumulation of Cd in low-Cd and high-Cd soils. The grain protein contents and yields of rice plants grown in the high-Cd soil were lower than those of plants cultivated in the low-Cd soil by 27.85% and 6.82%, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) and Cd contents were higher by 66.06% and 91.47%, respectively. Se application reduced Cd translocation from the stems and leaves to the spikes, decreasing the Cd content in brown rice by 40.36%. Additionally, Se enhanced the antioxidative activity, glutathione and protein contents, and rice yield (7.58%) and decreased the MDA and proline contents. However, these Se effects weakened under the high-Cd soil. Foliar Se application can alleviate Cd-induced physiological stress in brown rice while improving its yield and reducing its Cd content.


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