Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.
An experiment was conducted to determine effects of providing drinking water of differing qualities on growth performance and health of nursery pigs. Weanling pigs (n = 450; 150 pigs/group; 10 pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups consisting of three water sources of varying quality: 1) Water source A containing 1,410 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 1,120 ppm sulfates, and 1,500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS); 2) Water source B containing 909 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 617 ppm sulfates, and 1,050 ppm TDS; and 3) Water source C containing 235 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 2 ppm sulfates, and 348 ppm TDS. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to their respective water sources for the duration of the study which began at weaning (21 d of age) and ended 40 d later (61 d of age). Individual pig weights were recorded weekly along with feed intake on a pen basis. Occurrences of morbidity and mortality were recorded daily. Subjective fecal scores were assigned on a pen basis and blood samples were used to evaluate blood chemistry, cytokine concentrations, and phagocytic activity. A differential sugar absorption test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Fecal grab samples were used to establish diet digestibility, and drinking behavior was video-recorded to assess pigs’ acceptance of water sources provided. The statistical model considered fixed effects of water source, room, and their interaction with the random effect of pen. A repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine effects of water quality over time. There were no differences (P > 0.440) among water sources in average daily gain (A, 0.46 kg/d; B, 0.46 kg/d; C, 0.47 kg/d) or average daily feed intake (A, 0.68 kg/d; B, 0.69 kg/d; C, 0.71 kg/d). Overall mortality of pigs was 0.44% and did not differ across the three water sources. There were no differences in apparent total tract digestibility of the diet, intestinal permeability, immune parameters, or blood chemistry attributable to quality of water consumed by pigs. Pigs did not show an aversion to the water sources provided, because total time pigs spent at the drinker did not differ (P > 0.750) among water sources on d 1 through 3 of the experiment. These data indicate that the water sources of differing quality studied did not affect growth performance or health of nursery pigs.
Radioactive (radon) groundwaters are highly valued among mineral waters for their healing effects. Between 2005 and 2015, a large exploratory event for prospecting and documenting radon water springs took place in the crystalline area of Lugicum (Bohemian Massif) under Czech–Polish cooperation. For these purposes, an exploration method was developed as a combination of GIS (ArcMap 9.1–10.2) area preparation followed by field radiohydrogeochemical mapping at a scale of 1:10,000. The gamma indication method was optimized and used for the selection of water samples. A total of 2354 water sources were examined. Radon activity concentrations were measured at 660 sources found throughout the territory. Of those, 111 sources exhibited 222Rn activity above 1500 Bq/L and, thus, were categorized as sources of mineral radioactive waters according to Czech legislation. The highest 222Rn activity was found in the Michael spring near Nové Město pod Smrkem (up to 6237 Bq/L 222Rn). Many discovered sources with high balneological potential are significant and, therefore, are quickly becoming popular among the public.
Annual mass drug administration with praziquantel has reduced schistosomiasis transmission in some highly endemic areas, but areas with persistent high endemicity have been identified across sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. In these areas many children are rapidly reinfected post treatment, while some children remain uninfected or have low-intensity infections. The aim of this mixed-methods study was to better understand variation in water contact locations, behaviours and infection risk in school-aged children within an area with persistent high endemicity to inform additional control efforts.
Data were collected in Bugoto, Mayuge District, Uganda. Two risk groups were identified from a longitudinal cohort, and eight children with no/low-intensity infections and eight children with reinfections were recruited. Individual structured day-long observations with a focus on water contact were conducted over two periods in 2018. In all identified water contact sites, four snail surveys were conducted quarterly over 1 year. All observed Biomphalaria snails were collected, counted and monitored in the laboratory for Schistosoma mansoni cercarial shedding for 3 weeks.
Children came into contact with water for a range of purposes, either directly at the water sources or by coming into contact with water collected previously. Although some water contact practices were similar between the risk groups, only children with reinfection were observed fetching water for commercial purposes and swimming in water sources; this latter group of children also came into contact with water at a larger variety and number of sites compared to children with no/low-intensity infection. Households with children with no/low-intensity infections collected rainwater more often. Water contact was observed at 10 sites throughout the study, and a total of 9457 Biomphalaria snails were collected from these sites over four sampling periods. Four lake sites had a significantly higher Biomphalaria choanomphala abundance, and reinfected children came into contact with water at these sites more often than children with no/low-intensity infections. While only six snails shed cercariae, four were from sites only contacted by reinfected children.
Children with reinfection have more high-risk water contact behaviours and accessed water sites with higher B. choanomphala abundance, demonstrating that specific water contact behaviours interact with environmental features to explain variation in risk within areas with persistent high endemicity. Targeted behaviour change, vector control and safe water supplies could reduce reinfection in school-aged children in these settings.
Background: Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophages are widely distributed in various environments. The prevalence of bacteriophages in water sources, especially wastewaters, is naturally high. These viruses affect evolution of most bacterial species. Bacteriophages are able to integrate their genomes into the chromosomes of their hosts as prophages and hence transfer resistance genes to the bacterial genomes. Enterococci are commensal bacteria that show high resistance to common antibiotics. For example, prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased within the last decades.
Methods: Enterococcal isolates were isolated from clinical samples and morphological, phenotypical, biochemical, and molecular methods were used to identify and confirm their identity. Bacteriophages extracted from water sources were then applied to isolated Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium). In the next step, the bacterial genome was completely sequenced and the existing prophage genome in the bacterial genome was analyzed.
Results: In this study, E. faecium EntfacYE was isolated from a clinical sample. The EntfacYE genome was analyzed and 88 prophage genes were identified. The prophage content included four housekeeping genes, 29 genes in the group of genes related to replication and regulation, 25 genes in the group of genes related to structure and packaging, and four genes belonging to the group of genes associated with lysis. Moreover, 26 genes were identified with unknown functions.
Conclusion: In conclusion, genome analysis of prophages can lead to a better understanding of their roles in the rapid evolution of bacteria.