Physicochemical Properties
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 106-117
Usman Pato ◽  
Dewi Fortuna Ayu ◽  
Emma Riftyan ◽  
Fajar Restuhadi ◽  
Wasisso Tunggul Pawenang ◽  

This work aimed to analyze the physicochemical properties of cellulose from OPT used in the fabrication of CMF and evaluate the efficacy of the hydrogel CMF as an encapsulant for L. fermentum InaCC B1295 stored at room temperature and in the refrigerator. The Kjeldahl method was used to evaluate the protein content; the gravimetric method was used to determine OPT's ash, moisture, and fiber contents; the Soxhlet method was used to determine the fat content carbohydrates were computed using the difference method. The levels of holocellulose, lignin, and cellulose were also determined. Viability, acid and bile resistance of strain B1295 were evaluated at various temperatures for 35 days. The most abundant component of OPT fiber was cellulose, followed by hemicellulose and lignin. XRD examination revealed that OPT cellulose has a crystal index of 83.40%. FTIR analysis was used to detect the stretching vibrations of the –OH group on cellulose at 3419.03 cm-1. CMF hydrogel from OPT sustained L. fermentum InaCC B1295 survival for up to 28 days at room and refrigerated temperatures. At acidic conditions and in the presence of bile, the viability of L. fermentum InaCC B1295 was excellent, with a drop in cell population of less than 0.2 log CFU/g over 35 days at room and refrigerated temperatures. CMF obtained from OPT can be used as an encapsulant to maintain viability, acid resistance and bile of probiotics. There is still a need for research into the usage of CMF from OPT in combination with other encapsulants to extend the storage life of L. fermentum InaCC B1295. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-01-08 Full Text: PDF

Yuting Li ◽  
Wenxiang Zhou ◽  
Ming Jing ◽  
Shufei Wang ◽  
Yuhan Huang ◽  

Soil construction and revegetation are essential for ecological restoration in mining areas. The influence of vegetation on the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of soil properties should be fully understood. However, most studies on reconstructed soils in mining areas only concentrate on the surface soil, without exploring the vertical variations in soil properties. Overall, this study aims to explore the potential mechanisms by which surface vegetation exerts some influence on the spatial distribution of soil physicochemical properties, and to provide some insight into revegetation and soil reclamation in mining areas. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) were employed to evaluate the differences in the soil physicochemical properties in horizontal and vertical directions under different land-use types in the south dump of Antaibao opencast mine in Pingshuo, Shanxi Province, China. The main results of this study are as follows: (1) In the horizontal direction, except for the strong variation (variation coefficient ≥ 100%) in soil organic matter (SOM) content at some depths, the degree of variation in other soil physicochemical properties at various depths was moderate or weak (variation coefficient < 100%). The soil physicochemical properties gradually remained constant after years of reclamation. In the vertical direction, the soil bulk density (SBD), soil porosity, SOM content, soil C/N ratio, soil total nitrogen (STN) content, soil available phosphorus (SAP) content, and soil available potassium (SAK) content showed significant variations (p < 0.05) between soil depths. In contrast, no significant difference was found for other physicochemical properties. (2) The SBD, STN, SAK, soil porosity, and soil clay content were significantly different (p < 0.05) under different vegetation cover types, but the influence of vegetation on other soil physicochemical properties seemed to be limited. The results reveal that trees have a stronger ability to reduce soil grain sizes and enhance SAP contents than shrubs or herbs; however, the beneficial effects of herbs on the physicochemical properties of shallow soil are more obvious than those of trees and shrubs. (3) This study indicates that more shrubs and trees should be planted in the areas with low vegetation coverage, and more measures should be taken to improve soil physicochemical properties in order to prevent the occurrence of large-scale degradation. The reconstruction of soil structure should be preferentially considered in the process of soil reconstruction and revegetation in areas under similar conditions. Herbs should first be planted in the early reclamation stage. At the same time, shrubs or trees can be adopted in the middle and late stages of vegetation reconstruction in order to achieve comprehensive revegetation.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 194
Golfo Papatheodorou ◽  
Paraskevi Ntzoufra ◽  
Evroula Hapeshi ◽  
John Vakros ◽  
Dionissios Mantzavinos

Biochar from spent malt rootlets was employed as the template to synthesize hybrid biochar-ceria materials through a wet impregnation method. The materials were tested for the activation of persulfate (SPS) and subsequent degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a representative antibiotic, in various matrices. Different calcination temperatures in the range 300–500 °C were employed and the resulting materials were characterized by means of N2 adsorption and potentiometric mass titration as well as TGA, XRD, SEM, FTIR, DRS, and Raman spectroscopy. Calcination temperature affects the biochar content and the physicochemical properties of the hybrid materials, which were tested for the degradation of 500 μg L−1 SMX with SPS (in the range 200–500 mg L−1) in various matrices including ultrapure water (UPW), bottled water, wastewater, and UPW spiked with bicarbonate, chloride, or humic acid. Materials calcined at 300–350 °C, with a surface area of ca. 120 m2 g−1, were the most active, yielding ca. 65% SMX degradation after 120 min of reaction in UPW; materials calcined at higher temperatures as well as bare biochar were less active. Degradation decreased with increasing matrix complexity due to the interactions amongst the surface, the contaminant, and the oxidant. Experiments in the presence of scavengers (i.e., methanol, t-butanol, and sodium azide) revealed that sulfate and hydroxyl radicals as well as singlet oxygen were the main oxidative species.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 215
Kumbakonam Balachandran Ilango ◽  
Senguttuvan Gowthaman ◽  
Kumbakonam Ilango Seramaan ◽  
Kumarappan Chidambaram ◽  
Mohammad F. Bayan ◽  

Natural eco-friendly materials are recently employed in products to replace synthetic materials due to their superior benefits in preserving the environment. The herb Coccinia grandis is widely distributed in continents like Asia and Africa and used traditionally to treat fever, leprosy, asthma, jaundice, and bronchitis. Mucilage of Coccinia grandis was accordingly extracted, isolated by a maceration technique, and precipitated. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity was evaluated and the compatibility was analyzed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage was used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as examples of standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the mucilage were performed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a better disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS for paracetamol tablets. Use of a concentration of 3% or less demonstrated the ability of the mucilage to act as a super disintegrating agent and showed faster disintegration and dissolution, which makes it as an attractive, promising disintegrant in formulating solid dosage forms to improve the therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  
Ke Yang ◽  
Liu Liu

Abstract Four types of cereals (glutinous rice, purple rice, red rice, yellow millet) were selected to produce sweet fermented grains. Flavor profiles of sweet fermented grains are comparatively studied to distinguish various flavor types by using GC-MS, electronic nose (E-nose), and sensory analysis, and the amino acid composition and physicochemical properties of sweet fermented grains were analyzed. The results showed that the volatile compounds of sweet fermented grains were significantly different. Esters and alcohols were the major volatile compounds in sweet fermented grains. The electronic nose, electronic tongue and sensory analysis jointly verified that the volatile components of sweet fermented grains had differences between them. The sweet fermented grains could be classified based on differences in volatile compounds. In the amino acids analysis, Glu, Pro, Asp and Leu were the most abundant. The difference in physicochemical properties is more helpful to distinguish different types of sweet fermented grains. Correlation analysis between antioxidant active substances and color value showed a positive correlation between with a* value, and a negative correlation with L*, b* value. Our results suggested that there were differences in the flavor characteristics of sweet fermented grains fermented from different types of cereals. The results of the study will provide valuable information for the selection of raw materials for sweet fermented grains.

2022 ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Jiayin Huang ◽  
Zhiheng Hu ◽  
Mingyong Zeng ◽  
Zunying Liu ◽  

An inclusion system of embedding ferulic acid into β-cyclodextrin (FACD) with different host-guest stoichiometry was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then, the physicochemical properties and release kinetics of the FACD...

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 ◽  
pp. 250-257
Masaki Uchida ◽  
Elia Manzo ◽  
Dustin Echeveria ◽  
Sophie Jiménez ◽  
Logan Lovell

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 122979
Shilin Zhao ◽  
Hui Luo ◽  
Anjun Ma ◽  
Wen Xie ◽  
Kang Sun ◽  

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