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Sex Roles ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tamara Turner-Moore ◽  
Kate Milnes ◽  
Brendan Gough

AbstractSexual bullying refers to bullying or harassment that is sexualised, related to sexuality, and/or related to gender expression (Duncan, 1999). Research on sexual bullying is disparate and still developing as a field. This study extends on this research through a mixed-methods analysis of the different forms of sexual bullying and the relationships between them across five European nations. Participants were 253 young people (aged 13–18) from Bulgaria, England, Italy, Latvia and Slovenia. As part of focus groups on sexual bullying, participants individually and anonymously completed a Sexual Bullying Questionnaire (SBQ), comprising closed- and open-ended questions about their experiences of victimisation and bullying their peers. Factor analysis identified five forms of sexual bullying victimisation and two forms of sexual bullying towards peers. The quantitative and qualitative findings indicated that bullying or harassment that is sexualised, related to sexuality, and/or related to gender expression are associated with each other. Further, sexual bullying was found to be common to all five European countries indicating that it is a cross-national issue. The associations between sexualised, sexuality and gender expression bullying or harassment support the use of the term sexual bullying to unite these forms of peer victimisation in research and practice. Further, all countries studied require initiatives to address sexual bullying, and the gender and sexual norms that may contribute to it, with tailoring to the country context.

NeoBiota ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 69 ◽  
pp. 133-153
Flavius Bălăcenoiu ◽  
Anže Japelj ◽  
Iris Bernardinelli ◽  
Bastien Castagneyrol ◽  
György Csóka ◽  

The oak lace bug (OLB) Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) is an invasive alien species (IAS) that potentially could have many negative impacts on European oak health. Certain measures can be applied to counteract these effects. However, these measures may not be acceptable for forest managers or other stakeholder groups, such as private forest owners, environmental NGOs or the general public. Thereby, we set out to study the perception and knowledge of foresters and other stakeholders on the health status of European oak forests affected by oak lace bug and to investigate what forest health management measures would be acceptable to these target groups. An online survey questionnaire was designed and distributed via social networks, as well as professional networks via e-mails. The survey questionnaire was completed by 2084 respondents from nine European countries: Austria, Croatia, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Even though only a little over 60% of respondents reported they had noticed the discolouration of oak leaves caused by OLB, almost all (93%) considered it to be a problem. As respondents come from a country where C. arcuata is widespread and established, people’s general knowledge and awareness of OLB began to increase. The survey revealed that foresters thought that the insect affected photosynthesis, acorn crop and the aesthetics of the trees, but cannot cause death of trees. However, they assume that the value of the wood would decrease (this fact is also supported by the respondents who are connected to an environmental NGO), but that OLB does not affect property value. However, forest owners claim that the value of the property can be affected and that people would avoid entering the forest. In terms of potential control methods, respondents preferred biological or mechanical measures over chemical ones. We consider this study to be a good basis for further research on the topic of perception, knowledge and attitudes related to OLB since we can expect that the IAS, such as OLB, will certainly spread to European countries that were not included in this survey.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Lorenzo Cicatiello ◽  
Elina De Simone ◽  
Marcella D’Uva ◽  
Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta ◽  
Mauro Pinto

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Moonika Raja ◽  
Jorunn Bjerkan ◽  
Ingjerd G. Kymre ◽  
Kathleen T. Galvin ◽  
Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt

Abstract Background Demographic changes are leading to an ageing population in Europe. People are becoming more dependent on digital technologies and health ministries invest increasingly in digitalisation. Societal digital demands impact older people and learning to use new telehealth systems and digital devices are seen as a means of securing their needs. Methods The present study undertakes a scoping review in order to map relevant evidence about telehealth and digital developments in society involving citizens aged 75 and over in European countries. It focuses on their experiences and the main barriers to, and facilitators of, societal digital demands. A framework proposed by Arksey and O`Malley was used to guide the scoping review process. The studies included in the review covered telehealth, digital technology and digital devices, and the context covered participants` own home or surroundings. A comprehensive search on PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Open Grey was undertaken. Results Out of 727 identified citations, 13 sources which met the inclusion criteria (9 original study articles, 2 theses, 1 letter about a product and 1 project report). Few of the studies identified have investigated European citizens 75 years and older separately. The studies included varied in their design, location and focus. Older people have experienced both telehealth and digital devices making life easier and the opposite. The outstanding facilitator found was that technology should be easy to use, and difficulty in remembering the instructions was seen as an important barrier. Interestingly, both social support and lack of social support were found as facilitators of using new devices. Conclusions Telehealth may give a sense of security but learning to use a new device often takes extra effort. Older people were more open to new devices if the possible advantages of the new technology outweighed the effort that would be involved in adopting a new strategy. As technology develops rapidly, and life expectancy in Europe is anticipated to rise continually, there is a need for new and additional research among older European citizens. Future research should cover the technical solutions most relevant to older people today, social support and participants` access to the devices.

Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach ◽  
Michał Brudło ◽  
Mariusz Topolski ◽  
Tomasz Bochenek ◽  
Estera Jachowicz ◽  

Abstract Introduction The aim of this research study was to compare the situation concerning the use of microbiology testing, the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in Polish long-term care facilities (LTCFs) with other European countries, using the most recent findings available in the European databases. Furthermore, this study aimed to highlight several basic factors that contribute to the observable differences in AMC between countries participating in the HALT-3 study, especially the relationship with demographic indicators, as well as the health care resources utilization rates. Patients and methods The most recent HAIs in Long-Term care facilities Point Prevalence Survey (HALT PPS) was carried out in EU/EEA countries in 2016–2017, and in Poland it was carried out in April–June 2017 in 24 LTCFs. AMC data was collected with use of methodology of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system of the WHO. Results In total total in HALT-3 study on the day of the PPS, 5035 out of the 102,301 eligible residents received at least one antimicrobial agent, with prevalence of 4.9%, and in Poland 3.2%. The most common HAIs in the countries included into the study was urinary tract infection with relative frequency of 32%, in Poland it was skin infection, 30.4%. The respiratory tract infections, excluding pneumonia (PNU) were observed in 29.5% of residents in total, in Poland 17.4%, the prevalence rate of PNU were 1.4% and 5.4%, respectively. The lack of microbiological results of HAIs testing concerned the vast majority of all HAIs, 75.8% in total and 81.5% in Poland. The most frequently used antibacterial for systemic use were beta-lactams and the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial agent was ‘amoxicillin and enzyme inhibitor’. AMC was closely correlated with the age of the general population (65 years of age and more) and the availability of doctors in general population. Conclusions A significant problem observed in LTCFs was the empirical use of antibiotics and the scarcity of microbiological testing. In the studied Polish LTCFs, where the age of residents was low, also the AMC was found to be lower.

2021 ◽  
Torsten Houwaart ◽  
Samir Belhaj ◽  
Emran Tawalbeh ◽  
Dirk Nagels ◽  
Patrick Finzer ◽  

Integration of genomic surveillance with contact tracing provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of person-to-person pathogen transmission chains. We report two large clusters of SARS-CoV-2 cases ("Delta" clade, 110 cases combined) detected in July 2021 by Integrated Genomic Surveillance in Düsseldorf. Structured interviews and deep contact tracing demonstrated an association to a single SARS-CoV-2 infected return traveller (Cluster 1) and to return travel from Catalonia and other European countries (Cluster 2), highlighting the importance of containing travel-imported SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11765
Aleksander Aristovnik ◽  
Polonca Kovač ◽  
Eva Murko ◽  
Dejan Ravšelj ◽  
Lan Umek ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reshaped administrative relations and put emphasis on the digital transformation of public administration that is urgently needed to support a sustainable recovery from the pandemic crisis and future sustainable development in the post-pandemic era. This paper presents a comparative study on the ways the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic impacted general administrative authorities on the local level with respect to various aspects of their functioning and digitalization in five European countries. With a sample of 926 respondents from the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia, the study shows that the pandemic-imposed changes are very similar in these countries. The results reveal that, except for Germany, the biggest problems of pandemic-related regulations are their obscurity. For all countries under study, parties to the procedures are shown to be the main driver of digitalization and not the public administration itself, generally lagging behind in this sense. Nevertheless, the pandemic has also created several potential opportunities, whereby public managers, especially in Germany, have acknowledged the importance of digitalization right after the protection of health, as confirmed by the wider use of ICT equipment, particularly in Germany and the Czech Republic. Moreover, Germany and Romania exhibit the greatest potential to accelerate digitalization. Finally, the critical factors influencing accelerated digitalization after the pandemic are also identified. The paper’s evidence-based findings could prove useful while formulating recommendations for the sustainable practices of public administrations during this and any future pandemic crisis.

2021 ◽  
Amar Ahmad ◽  
Christian Heumann ◽  
Raghib Ali ◽  
Tim Oliver

Abstract Background: Reports early in the epidemic linking low mean national Vitamin D level with increased COVID-19 death, and until recently little research on the impact of Vitamin-D deficiency on severity of COVID-19, led to this update of the initial report studying mortality up to the end of January 2021. Methods: Coronavirus pandemic data for 19 European countries were downloaded from Our World in Data, which was last updated on January 24, 2021. Data from March 21, 2020 to January 22, 2021 were included in the statistical analysis. Vitamin-D (25)-HD mean data were collected by literature review. Poisson mixed-effect model was used to model the data. Results: European countries with Vitamin-D (25)-HD mean less than or equal to 50 have higher COVID-19 death rates as compared with European countries with Vitamin-D (25)-HD mean greater than 50, relative risk of 2.155 (95% CI: 1.068 - 4.347, p-value = 0.032). A statistically significant negative moderate Spearman rank correlation was observed between Vitamin-D (25)-HD mean and the number of COVID-19 deaths for each 14-day period during the COVID-19 pandemic time period. Conclusions: The observation of the significantly lower COVID-19 mortality rates in countries with lowest annual sun exposure but highest mean Vitamin-D (25)-HD levels provides support for the use of food fortification. The need to consider re-configuring vaccine strategy due to emergence of large number of COVID-19 variants provides an opportunity to undertake such therapeutic randomized control trials.

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