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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-97
Massimiliano Tarozzi

This research looked at the growing space that Global Citizenship Education (GCE) is gaining in educational policy worldwide, and at the role Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) played in GCE agenda setting and policy implementation. Based on a comparative policy analysis carried out in 10 European countries, the political agency of NGOs was explored, underlining opportunities, tensions, and challenges, especially in their contribution to national strategies to integrate GCE into national educational systems.

MEST Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-81
Marek Stych ◽  
Beata Pawlica ◽  
Malgorzata Kmak

This article tackles the issue of aid for African states. Africa is one of the poorest continents, with many people living on the verge of poverty and suffering from malnutrition or famine. Hence, the humanitarian aid provided to the people of this continent is of particular importance. In Poland, such aid activities undertake entities defined in the Polish legal system as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs also conduct many other kinds of activities. The Act on public benefit and volunteer work is an example of creating legal mechanisms for the functioning of civil society in the legal system to provide international aid to those it needs. Assisting other societies is important for modern civil society the same as political or economic cooperations are. The role of NGOs operating in health protection, education, or entrepreneurship areas is crucially important. The authors of this paper discuss the issue of the said aid provided by selected Polish NGOs. The article aims to determine the extent and scope of the assistance to African countries provided by the NGOs, based on the respondents' experiences, whether such assistance is necessary, and what form it should take.

عاصم علي حسن الشرفي

Countries and governments are seeking to develop their societies and achieve prosperity with growth for their people, through achieving comprehensive sustainable development, which guarantees the right of current generations to well-being, and preserving the right of subsequent generations through good exploitation of available resources, wealth and full preservation to the surrounding environment and not to destroy it. However, good governance reflects to recent global developments and changes that have coincided with changing in the system of political governance and the role of governments, as this concept was put forward in the framework of political programs in order to achieve development goals. Thus, good governance was provided and supported by international non-governmental organizations, such as the United Nations and international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, in order to add an authoritative, ethical way to practice power in managing the affairs of states and societies. The problem in this research paper was the extent of the contribution of civil society organizations in the development process, as a result of the weak role of governments and states, which forced these organizations to work side by side with governments in the process of achieving sustainable development. This paper relied on the descriptive and analytical approach and aimed to identify the important and effective role of civil society organizations in the process of achieving the development of peoples and societies. The study concluded that it is not possible for these civil organizations to contribute to achieving sustainable development with the absence or weakness of implementing and activating the standards of good governance, since good governance is the foundation to Achieve the real sustainable development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-27
Mukamana Claudete ◽  
Dr. Mukamazimpaka Marie Claire ◽  

The effective provision of basic education in Rwanda increases the competition level among graduates which promotionally improves the socio-economic transformation of communities. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the effect of early childhood education on socio-economic transformation of communities in Nyamasheke district in Rwanda. The target population was 368 respondents that provided the sample size of 192 got using Yamane formula. Interview guide and questionnaire were used as data collection instruments. Correlation research design was also employed. The study findings revealed there is 31% of accessibility of ECE able to affect the level of socio-economic transformation of communities as indicated by the R square = .310 and the remaining 69% of socio-economic transformation of communities can be affected by other factors. However, it was found that, there is a statistically significant moderate relationship between accessibility ECE and socio-economic transformation of communities (P=.000 and r = .555). The study recommended the ministry of education which represents the government in the sector of Education should provide the adequate infrastructures of ECE schools in Nyamasheke district to improve and make easy accessibility of ECE in the area thus also increase the literacy level. The non-governmental organizations should invest more in ECE of Nyamasheke district in order to develop youth who are competent and able to compete at the labour market. Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Socio-economic transformation, Communities

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
María Martínez-Lirola

This article presents an analysis of the main discourses that appear in a sample of Spanish newspapers before and after the arrival of the Aquarius at the port of Valencia in June 2018, in order to observe if there is a solidarity discourse or one that rejects the arrival of the rescued immigrants in Spain. The corpus consists of all the news published from June 10 to July 10, 2018 in the electronic version of the Spanish newspapers ABC, El Mundo, El País and La Vanguardia. The methodology is mainly qualitative-descriptive. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was chosen to observe the main linguistic characteristics of the collected news items and the topics that appear in the articles. The analysis shows that the testimonies of politicians and members of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) predominate, but there are few testimonies of immigrants. The solidarity and acceptance of Spain are strengthened, as well as the defense of human rights. This contrasts with the discourses that the press presents after the arrival of the ship in Valencia. A discourse related to the health of immigrants and their need for help and resources predominates, a fact that contributes to the alarm of the majority group.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Abriham Ebabu Engidaw

AbstractMainly this study was aimed at demonstrating the challenges of small businesses during the corona virus pandemic in developing countries, specifically in Ethiopia. Methodologically, the study deployed secondary data analysis following a descriptive research design. Furthermore, this study was conducted through both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The secondary data analysis result shows that many small and large businesses are suffering challenges and this unprecedented coronavirus crisis has caused destruction for many businesses in the globe and it is challenging to survive with reduced revenue, jobs lost and life slowing down and weak marketing performance even difficult to keep a calm head and their business alive. To support these businesses, the government should use different mechanisms by cooperating with wealthy peoples and other non-governmental organizations. Besides, small business owners should manage expectations and communicate with staff, suppliers, banks, and customers throughout this coronavirus frightening. Reduce expenses be open to their employees about their finances and keep marketing, use different alternatives to deliver their product, and recover from the crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kyaw Min Soe ◽  
Katharina Hauck ◽  
Sukhum Jiamton ◽  
Sukhontha Kongsin

Abstract Background There was an estimated 440,000 people living with HIV in Thailand in 2018. New cases are declining rapidly thanks to successful prevention programs and scaling up of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Thailand aims to achieve its commitment to end the HIV epidemic by 2030 and implemented a cascade of HIV interventions through the Reach-Recruit-Test-Treat-Retain (RRTTR) program. Methods This study focused on community outreach HIV interventions implemented by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) under the RRTTR program in 27 provinces. We calculated unit cost per person reached for HIV interventions targeted at key-affected populations (KAPs) including men who have sex with men/ transgender (MSM/TG), male sex workers (MSW), female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID) and migrants (MW). We studied program key outputs, costs, and unit costs in variations across different HIV interventions and geographic locations in Thailand. We used these estimates to determine costs of HIV interventions and evaluate economies of scale. Results The interventions for migrants in Samut Sakhon was the least costly with a unit cost of 21.6 USD per person to receive services, followed by interventions for migrants in Samut Prakan 23.2 USD per person reached, MSM/TG in Pratum Thani 26.5USD per person reached, MSM/TG in Nonthaburi 26.6 USD per person reached and, MSM/TG in Chon Buri with 26.7 USD per person. The interventions yielded higher efficiency in large metropolitan and surrounding provinces. Harm reduction programs were the costliest compare with other interventions. There was association between unit cost and scale of among interventions indicating the presence of economies scale. Implementing HIV and TB interventions jointly increased efficiency for both cases. Conclusion This study suggested that unit cost of community outreach HIV and TB interventions led by CSOs will decrease as they are scaled up. Further studies are suggested to follow up with these ongoing interventions for identifying potential contextual factors to improve efficiency of HIV prevention services in Thailand.

2022 ◽  
pp. 139-156
Winfred Yaokumah

There is an urgent need for transformative changes in cyber security awareness and training programs to produce individuals and the workforce that can deal with business risks emanating from the prevailing and emerging cyber-attacks. This chapter proposes a cyber security competency model that integrates learning theories (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), learning continuum hierarchy (awareness and training), and cyber security domain knowledge. Employing literature search of scholarly and practitioner works, together with cyber security standards from governmental and non-governmental organizations, the chapter integrates cyber security domain knowledge, learning theories, and learning continuum hierarchy to design a model of cyber security competencies suitable for use in educating individuals and the general workforce. This theoretical-based approach to designing cyber security awareness and training programs will produce skillful individuals and workforce that can mitigate cyber-attacks in the global business environment.

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