policy implementation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jianzu Wu ◽  
Kunxin Zhang

This article examines the policy implementation literature using a text mining technique, known as a structural topic model (STM), to conduct a comprehensive analysis of 547 articles published by 11 major journals between 2000 and 2019. The subject analyzed was the policy implementation literature, and the search included titles, keywords, and abstracts. The application of the STM not only allowed us to provide snapshots of different research topics and variation across covariates but also let us track the evolution and influence of topics over time. Examining the policy implementation literature has contributed to the understanding of public policy areas; the authors also provided recommendations for future studies in policy implementation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-97
Massimiliano Tarozzi

This research looked at the growing space that Global Citizenship Education (GCE) is gaining in educational policy worldwide, and at the role Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) played in GCE agenda setting and policy implementation. Based on a comparative policy analysis carried out in 10 European countries, the political agency of NGOs was explored, underlining opportunities, tensions, and challenges, especially in their contribution to national strategies to integrate GCE into national educational systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 135 ◽  
pp. 102642
Josiane Gakou-Kakeu ◽  
Monica Di Gregorio ◽  
Jouni Paavola ◽  
Denis Jean Sonwa

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Sally Mackay ◽  
Sarah Gerritsen ◽  
Fiona Sing ◽  
Stefanie Vandevijvere ◽  
Boyd Swinburn

Abstract Background The INFORMAS [International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support] Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) was developed to evaluate the degree of implementation of widely recommended food environment policies by national governments against international best practice, and has been applied in New Zealand in 2014, 2017 and 2020. This paper outlines the 2020 Food-EPI process and compares policy implementation and recommendations with the 2014 and 2017 Food-EPI. Methods In March–April 2020, a national panel of over 50 public health experts participated in Food-EPI. Experts rated the extent of implementation of 47 “good practice” policy and infrastructure support indicators compared to international best practice, using an extensive evidence document verified by government officials. Experts then proposed and prioritized concrete actions needed to address the critical implementation gaps identified. Progress on policy implementation and recommendations made over the three Food-EPIs was compared. Results In 2020, 60% of the indicators were rated as having “low” or “very little, if any” implementation compared to international benchmarks: less progress than 2017 (47%) and similar to 2014 (61%). Of the nine priority actions proposed in 2014, there was only noticeable action on one (Health Star Ratings). The majority of actions were therefore proposed again in 2017 and 2020. In 2020 the proposed actions were broader, reflecting the need for multisectoral action to improve the food environment, and the need for a mandatory approach in all policy areas. Conclusions There has been little to no progress in the past three terms of government (9 years) on the implementation of policies and infrastructure support for healthy food environments, with implementation overall regressing between 2017 and 2020. The proposed actions in 2020 have reflected a growing movement to locate nutrition within the wider context of planetary health and with recognition of the social determinants of health and nutrition, resulting in recommendations that will require the involvement of many government entities to overcome the existing policy inertia. The increase in food insecurity due to COVID-19 lockdowns may provide the impetus to stimulate action on food polices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Ifan Fanani ◽  
Sri Wibawani

Fostering awareness of state defense or what is commonly called PKBN is the government's effort to create deterrence to strengthen the defense of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia in the face of all opportunities and threats from within and outside the country. The East Java 'Veteran' National Development University implemented PKBN through extracurricular activities through the Student Activity Unit (UKM) so that a policy of fostering state defense awareness was formed for bidikmisi students at the East Java 'Veteran' National Development University. The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation of state defense awareness policies in bidikmisi students at the 'Veteran' National Development University in East Java. This research is a descriptive qualitative research with research focus based on Edward III's policy implementation model, namely communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure. The results showed that the implementation of the policy of fostering awareness of state defense in Bidikmisi students at the National Veterans Development University of East Java could not be carried out optimally.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Erika L. Crable ◽  
Allyn Benintendi ◽  
David K. Jones ◽  
Alexander Y. Walley ◽  
Jacqueline Milton Hicks ◽  

Abstract Background Despite the important upstream impact policy has on population health outcomes, few studies in implementation science in health have examined implementation processes and strategies used to translate state and federal policies into accessible services in the community. This study examines the policy implementation strategies and experiences of Medicaid programs in three US states that responded to a federal prompt to improve access to evidence-based practice (EBP) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Methods Three US state Medicaid programs implementing American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) Criteria-driven SUD services under Section 1115 waiver authority were used as cases. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with Medicaid staff, providers and health systems partners in California, Virginia, and West Virginia. Interviews were triangulated with document review of state readiness and implementation plans. The Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment Framework (EPIS) guided qualitative theme analysis. The Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change and Specify It criteria were used to create a taxonomy of policy implementation strategies used by policymakers to promote providers’ uptake of statewide EBP SUD care continuums. Results Four themes describe states’ experiences and outcomes implementing a complex EBP SUD treatment policy directive: (1) Medicaid agencies adapted their inner/outer contexts to align with EBPs and adapted EBPs to fit their local context; (2) enhanced financial reimbursement arrangements were inadequate bridging factors to achieve statewide adoption of new SUD services; (3) despite trainings, service providers and managed care organizations demonstrated poor fidelity to the ASAM Criteria; and (4) successful policy adoption at the state level did not guarantee service providers’ uptake of EBPs. States used 29 implementation strategies to implement EBP SUD care continuums. Implementation strategies were used in the Exploration (n=6), Preparation (n=10), Implementation (n=19), and Sustainment (n=6) phases, and primarily focused on developing stakeholder interrelationships, evaluative and iterative approaches, and financing. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of statewide policy implementation outcomes in low-resource, public healthcare settings. Themes highlight the need for additional pre-implementation and sustainment focused implementation strategies. The taxonomy of detailed policy implementation strategies employed by policymakers across states should be tested in future policy implementation research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Tanit Arunratanothai ◽  
Ravisorn Booncharoen ◽  
Sirapop Suwankomolkul ◽  
Nareudee Limpuangthip

Abstract Background Thailand has encountered an imbalanced dentist distribution and an internal brain drain of dentists from public to private health care facilities. To tackle these challenges, the compulsory service (CS) program, which has been initially implemented for physicians, was extended for dentists. Method This policy and workforce document review describes the background, development, and policy implementation of the CS program in Thailand during the past three decades. Outcomes after policy implementation and future directions are also discussed. The information was gathered from the relevant policy and workforce documents available from 1961 to 2021. Results In Thailand, junior dentists, specifically newly graduates, have to enroll in the CS program by working as oral health practitioners in public hospitals for at least 3 years. Dentists must pay a maximum fine of 400 000 baht (~ 12 571 USD) if they wish to skip the program. This fine is lowered according to the number of attending years in the program. CS program conditions are related to each university’s admission track. The CS enrolled dentists receive several financial and non-financial benefits, including educational, employment-related, and living provisions. Altogether, successive Thai governments have launched directive policies to increase dentist distribution in rural areas and their retention in public hospitals. These policies have been implemented in 3 stages: (1) increase production of new dentists, (2) allocation of newly dental graduates to public hospitals, and (3) provide benefits for working in public hospitals. Conclusion During the past three decades, several public policies have been implemented to improve dentist retention and distribution to public hospitals across Thailand, particularly in rural areas. The present CS program may not completely resolve the oral health inequalities because the dentist retention rate in public hospitals depends on multi-dimensional considerations. Further modifications on the CS program and future well-planned policies are needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 36
Leona Konieczny

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on long term care (LTC) have been published in the literature and experienced by residents, their support persons and nursing staff. The morbidity and mortality, as well as the threats of isolation and psychosocial distress continue. Both LTC residents and staff experience physiological and psychological impacts. Nurses can use the current threats produced by the pandemic to advocate for alternate models of care and reduced isolation for residents. The pandemic is an opportunity for nursing advocacy in LTC for shared governance and empowerment, involvement in policy development, and oversight in policy implementation. Nurses are presented with the opportunities for advocacy related to resources and reshaping the paradigm of residential care for older adults.

2022 ◽  
Nelson Villoria ◽  
Rachael Garrett ◽  
Florian Gollnow ◽  
Kimberly Carlson

Abstract Supply chain policies that leverage the upstream market power of trading companies and importing countries offer great promise to address forest clearing1,2 in regions of rapid commodity expansion but weak forest governance3,4. Yet leakage—when deforestation is not eliminated but instead pushed to other regions—is a potentially major but unquantified factor that could dilute the global effectiveness of regionally successful supply chain policies5,6. We find substantial domestic leakage rates (43-50%) induced by zero deforestation policy implementation in Brazil’s soy sector, but insignificant cross-border leakage (<3%) due to the interdependence of soy production in the U.S. and Brazil. Currently implemented zero-deforestation policies in the Brazilian soy sector offset 0.9% of global and 4% of Brazilian deforestation from 2011-2016. However, completely eliminating deforestation from the supply chains of all firms exporting soy to the EU or China over the same period could have reduced global deforestation by 2% and Brazilian deforestation by 9%. If major tropical commodity importers adopt policies that require traders to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains, as currently proposed in the EU, it could help bend the curve on global forest loss.

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