Comparative Analysis
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rohit Ramakrishna Nadkarni ◽  
Bimal Puthuvayi

PurposeThe identification (listing) and classification (grading) of urban heritage buildings for conservation is a challenging task for urban planners and conservation architects. Most of the world's cities depend on the expert-based evaluation method (EBEM) for listing and grading heritage buildings. The Panaji city in India provided a unique opportunity to assess the performance of the EBEM as two independent agencies carried out the heritage listing and grading process. Considering the case of Panaji, this research aims to measure the performance of EBEM used for listing and grading heritage buildings and identify the issues associated with the existing methodology.Design/methodology/approachThis research presents a comparative analysis of the building listed and graded by the two agencies. The buildings that both agencies graded were identified and analysed using a confusion matrix. The grading classification was tested for accuracy, precision, sensitivity and F-score.FindingsThe result shows a low accuracy and F-score, which reflects the level of buildings misclassified. The misclassification is the product of the lack of standardisation of methodology and the subjectivity level involved in the EBEM.Originality/valueHeritage listing and grading is a time-consuming process, and no city has the time and resource to conduct studies to check the accuracy. The cities in India and across the world, which follow a similar EBEM process, should consider this study's finding and revisit their methodology and develop a more reliable methodology for listing and grading heritage buildings.


2021 ◽  
pp. emermed-2021-211706
Author(s):  
James Vassallo ◽  
Saisakul Chernbumroong ◽  
Nabeela Malik ◽  
Yuanwei Xu ◽  
Damian Keene ◽  
...  

IntroductionTriage is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents. There is currently a paucity of evidence to guide the triage of children. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of nine adult and paediatric triage tools, including the novel ‘Sheffield Paediatric Triage Tool’ (SPTT), assessing their ability in identifying patients needing life-saving interventions (LSIs).MethodsA 10-year (2008–2017) retrospective database review of the Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) Database for paediatric patients (<16 years) was performed. Primary outcome was identification of patients receiving one or more LSIs from a previously defined list. Secondary outcomes included mortality and prediction of Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15. Primary analysis was conducted on patients with complete prehospital physiological data with planned secondary analyses using first recorded data. Performance characteristics were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, undertriage and overtriage.Results15 133 patients met TARN inclusion criteria. 4962 (32.8%) had complete prehospital physiological data and 8255 (54.5%) had complete first recorded physiological data. The majority of patients were male (69.5%), with a median age of 11.9 years. The overwhelming majority of patients (95.4%) sustained blunt trauma, yielding a median ISS of 9 and overall, 875 patients (17.6%) received at least one LSI. The SPTT demonstrated the greatest sensitivity of all triage tools at identifying need for LSI (92.2%) but was associated with the highest rate of overtriage (75.0%). Both the Paediatric Triage Tape (sensitivity 34.1%) and JumpSTART (sensitivity 45.0%) performed less well at identifying LSI. By contrast, the adult Modified Physiological Triage Tool-24 (MPTT-24) triage tool had the second highest sensitivity (80.8%) with tolerable rates of overtriage (70.2%).ConclusionThe SPTT and MPTT-24 outperform existing paediatric triage tools at identifying those patients requiring LSIs. This may necessitate a change in recommended practice. Further work is needed to determine the optimum method of paediatric major incident triage, but consideration should be given to simplifying major incident triage by the use of one generic tool (the MPTT-24) for adults and children.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
ANKIT GHOSH ◽  
ALOK KOLE

<p>Smart grid is an essential concept in the transformation of the electricity sector into an intelligent digitalized energy network that can deliver optimal energy from the source to the consumers. Smart grids being self-sufficient systems are constructed through the integration of information, telecommunication, and advanced power technologies with the existing electricity systems. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an important technology driver in smart grids. The application of AI techniques in smart grid is becoming more apparent because the traditional modelling optimization and control techniques have their own limitations. Machine Learning (ML) being a sub-set of AI enables intelligent decision-making and response to sudden changes in the customer energy demands, unexpected disruption of power supply, sudden variations in renewable energy output or any other catastrophic events in a smart grid. This paper presents the comparison among some of the state-of-the-art ML algorithms for predicting smart grid stability. The dataset that has been selected contains results from simulations of smart grid stability. Enhanced ML algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) classifier, XGBoost and Gradient Boosting classifiers have been implemented to forecast smart grid stability. A comparative analysis among the different ML models has been performed based on the following evaluation metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, AUC-ROC, and AUC-PR curves. The test results that have been obtained have been quite promising with the XGBoost classifier outperforming all the other models with an accuracy of 97.5%, recall of 98.4%, precision of 97.6%, F1-score of 97.9%, AUC-ROC of 99.8% and AUC-PR of 99.9%. </p>


Author(s):  
William PARTLETT

Abstract This article will place the 2020 amendments to the Russian Constitution in comparative perspective. Although these amendments were officially justified as strengthening the Russian state in order to tackle emerging new problems, they constitutionalise already-existing legislative trends from the last twenty years. They therefore do little to overcome existing problems of Russian state building. What was the reform process about then? It was intended to project the image of reform by involving the people in a staged process of constitutional change while further entrenching the power of the current political elite. The constitutional reforms therefore demonstrate the symbolic role that constitutional law can play in seeking to ensure the survival of mature or later-stage forms of authoritarian populism. This kind of ‘theatrical constitution-making’ is a broader reminder of how the expressive aspects of constitutional change can be (ab)used by established authoritarian regimes.


Author(s):  
Yves Saint James Aquino ◽  
Wendy A. Rogers ◽  
Jackie Leach Scully ◽  
Farah Magrabi ◽  
Stacy M. Carter

AbstractThis article provides a critical comparative analysis of the substantive and procedural values and ethical concepts articulated in guidelines for allocating scarce resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified 21 local and national guidelines written in English, Spanish, German and French; applicable to specific and identifiable jurisdictions; and providing guidance to clinicians for decision making when allocating critical care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. US guidelines were not included, as these had recently been reviewed elsewhere. Information was extracted from each guideline on: 1) the development process; 2) the presence and nature of ethical, medical and social criteria for allocating critical care resources; and 3) the membership of and decision-making procedure of any triage committees. Results of our analysis show the majority appealed primarily to consequentialist reasoning in making allocation decisions, tempered by a largely pluralistic approach to other substantive and procedural values and ethical concepts. Medical and social criteria included medical need, co-morbidities, prognosis, age, disability and other factors, with a focus on seemingly objective medical criteria. There was little or no guidance on how to reconcile competing criteria, and little attention to internal contradictions within individual guidelines. Our analysis reveals the challenges in developing sound ethical guidance for allocating scarce medical resources, highlighting problems in operationalising ethical concepts and principles, divergence between guidelines, unresolved contradictions within the same guideline, and use of naïve objectivism in employing widely used medical criteria for allocating ICU resources.


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